Miller J.R. Contaminated rivers (Dordrecht, 2007). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаMiller J.R. Contaminated rivers: a geomorphological-geochemical approach to site assessment and remediation / Miller J.R., Miller S.M.O. - Dordrecht; London: Springer, 2007. - 418 p. - ISBN 1402052863; ISBN 9781402052866
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... xiii

1.  Contaminated Rivers: An Overview ............................ l
    1.1.  Introduction .......................................... 1
    1.2.  Types of Contaminants ................................. 3
          1.2.1.  Organic Contaminants .......................... 3
          1.2.2.  Inorganic Contaminants ........................ 8
    1.3.  National Assessments of River Health ................. 11
          1.3.1.  The National Water Quality Inventory ......... 12
          1.3.2.  The National Sediment Quality Survey ......... 14
          1.3.3.  The National Water-Quality Assessment
                  Program ...................................... 17
          1.3.4.  Sources of Contamination ..................... 18
    1.4.  The Dissolved Versus Particulate Load ................ 21
    1.5.  Site Characterization, Assessment, and Remediation ... 23
    1.6.  The Geomorphological-Geochemical Approach ............ 27
    1.7.  Summary .............................................. 30
    1.8.  Suggested Readings ................................... 31

2.  Sediment-Trace Metal Interactions .......................... 33
    2.1.  Introduction ......................................... 33
    2.2.  Physical Partitioning of Trace Metals in Sediment .... 34
    2.3.  Chemical Partitioning of Trace Elements in
          Sediment ............................................. 39
          2.3.1.  Mechanistic Associations ..................... 39
          2.3.2.  Chemically Reactive Substrates ............... 53
    2.4.  Elemental Speciation ................................. 60
    2.5.  Chemical Remobilization .............................. 63
    2.6.  Summary .............................................. 66
    2.7.  Suggested Readings ................................... 67

3.  Basin Processes ............................................ 69
    3.1.  Introduction ......................................... 69
    3.2.  Hillslope Hydrology .................................. 70
          3.2.1.  Direct Runoff Generation ..................... 70
          3.2.2.  Flood Hydrographs ............................ 76
    3.3.  Contaminant Transport Pathways ....................... 80
          3.3.1.  The Controlling Factors ...................... 80
          3.3.2.  Transport via Hortonian Overland Flow ........ 84
          3.3.3.  Mapping Spatial Variations in Metal
                  Sources ...................................... 85
    3.4.  Hillslope Erosion .................................... 88
          3.4.1.  Basic Mechanics .............................. 88
          3.4.2.  Measurement of Erosion Rates ................. 89
          3.4.3.  Prediction of Erosion Rates .................. 91
    3.5.  Summary ............................................. 101
    3.6.  Suggested Readings .................................. 102

4.  The Water Column - Concentration and Load ................. 103
    4.1.  Introduction ........................................ 103
    4.2.  Temporal Variations in Concentration ................ 104
          4.2.1.  Dissolved Constituents ...................... 104
          4.2.2.  Particulate and Particulate-Borne
                  Contaminant Concentrations .................. 113
    4.3.  Sediment and Contaminant Loads ...................... 118
          4.3.1.  Load Estimation ............................. 118
          4.3.2.  The Effective Transporting Discharge ........ 123
    4.4.  Summary ............................................. 125
    4.5.  Suggested Readings .................................. 126

5.  The Channel Bed - Contaminant Transport and
    Storage ................................................... 127
    5.1.  Introduction ........................................ 127
    5.2.  Sediment Transport .................................. 128
          5.2.1.  Modes of Transport .......................... 128
          5.2.2.  Channelized Flow ............................ 129
          5.2.3.  Entrainment ................................. 132
    5.3.  Processes of Contaminant Dispersal .................. 136
          5.3.1.  Hydraulic Sorting ........................... 136
          5.3.2.  Dilution and Exchange with the Floodplain ... 138
          5.3.3.  Sediment Storage and Exchange Mechanisms .... 140
          5.3.4.  Geochemical Processes and Biological
                  Uptake ...................................... 142
    5.4.  Downstream Patterns ................................. 144
          5.4.1.    Impoundment Failures ...................... 148
    5.5.  Deposition and Storage along a Reach ................ 151
          5.5.1.  Channel Patterns ............................ 152
          5.5.2.  Trace Metal Partitioning Mechanisms ......... 162
          5.5.3.  Implications to Sampling .................... 168
    5.6.  Physical and Mathematical Manipulations ............. 170
    5.7.  Temporal Variations in Concentration ................ 173
    5.8.  Summary ............................................. 175
    5.9.  Suggested Readings .................................. 176

6.  Floodplains ............................................... 177
    6.1.  Introduction ........................................ 177
    6.2.  Floodplains: Definition ............................. 178
    6.3.  The Formative Processes ............................. 180
    6.4.  Floodplain Sediments ................................ 185
          6.4.1.  Floodplain Deposits ......................... 187
    6.5.  Trace Metal Storage and Distribution ................ 193
          6.5.1.  Grain Size Variations ....................... 196
          6.5.2.  Residence Time and Deposit Age .............. 198
          6.5.3.  Sediment Mixing and Homogenization .......... 200
          6.5.4.  Post-Depositional Processes ................. 200
    6.6.  Overbank Sediments .................................. 202
          6.6.1.  Depositional Rates and Patterns ............. 203
          6.6.2.  Geographical Patterns in Contaminant 
                  Concentrations .............................. 209
          6.6.3.  Documenting Pollution Histories ............. 214
    6.7.  Sediment and Contaminant Source Determination ....... 219
          6.7.1.  Non-point Source Multivariate
                  Fingerprinting Methods ...................... 220
          6.7.2.  Isotopic Tracing Methods .................... 222
    6.8.  Physical Remobilization ............................. 227
          6.8.1.  Bank Erosion Processes ...................... 228
    6.9.  Summary ............................................. 232
    6.10. Suggested Readings .................................. 234

7.  River Metamorphosis ....................................... 235
    7.1.  Introduction ........................................ 235
    7.2.  The Balanced Condition .............................. 235
    7.3.  Thresholds, Complex Response, and Process
          Linkages ............................................ 241
    7.4.  Adjustments in Channel Gradient, Shape, and
          Pattern ............................................. 248
    7.5.  Effects of River Metamorphosis ...................... 252
    7.6.  Terraces ............................................ 254
          7.6.1.  Definition and Formative Processes .......... 254
          7.6.2.  Trace Metal Distributions ................... 258
    7.7.  Quantifying Extent and Magnitude of Contamination ... 262
    7.8.  Summary ............................................. 269
    7.9.  Suggested Readings .................................. 270

8.  Remediation and Remediation Standards ..................... 271
    8.1.  Introduction ........................................ 271
    8.2.  Setting Remediation Standards ....................... 273
          8.2.1.  Background Concentrations ................... 276
          8.2.2.  Health and Risk Based Standards ............. 282
    8.3.  Prioritizing Cleanup ................................ 285
    8.4.  Summary ............................................. 287
    8.5.  Suggested Readings .................................. 288

9.  Ex Situ Remediation and Channel Restoration ............... 289
    9.1.  Introduction ........................................ 289
    9.2.  Ex Situ Remediation Techniques ...................... 291
          9.2.1.  Excavation .................................. 292
          9.2.2.  Dredging .................................... 294
    9.3.  Ex Situ Treatments .................................. 302
          9.3.1.  Dewatering and Particle Separation .......... 303
          9.3.2.  Soil Washing ................................ 305
          9.3.3.  Other Treatment Alternatives ................ 308
    9.4.  River Restoration and Rehabilitation ................ 310
          9.4.1.  Goals and Objectives ........................ 310
          9.4.2.  Channel Reconstruction ...................... 313
          9.4.3.  In-stream Structures, Bank Protection, 
                  and Habitat Formation ....................... 317
    9.5.  Summary ............................................. 324
    9.6.  Suggested Readings .................................. 325

10. In Situ Remediation ....................................... 327
    10.1. Introduction ........................................ 327
    10.2. In Situ Extraction .................................. 328
          10.2.1. Soil Flushing ............................... 328
          10.2.2. Electrokinetic Separation ................... 330
          10.2.3. Phytoremediation ............................ 334
    10.3. In Situ Containment ................................. 338
          10.3.1. In Situ (Subaqueous) Capping ................ 338
          10.3.2. Soil and Sediment Capping ................... 341
          10.3.3. In Situ Solidification and Stabilization .... 342
          10.3.4. Phytostabilization and Immobilization ....... 343
    10.4. Monitored Natural Recovery .......................... 346
    10.5. Summary ............................................. 350
    10.6. Suggested Readings .................................. 350

Appendix A. Dating Techniques ................................. 351
    A.1.  Introduction ........................................ 351
    A.2.  Short-Lived Radionuclides (Pb-210 and Cs-137) ....... 352
    A.3.  Radiocarbon (C-14) .................................. 357
    A.4.  Luminescence Techniques (TL, IRSL, and OSL) ......... 358
    A.5.  Marker Beds (Tephra, Trace Metals) .................. 359
    A.6.  Dendrochronology .................................... 361
Appendix B. Unit Conversions and Elemental Data ............... 365

References .................................................... 369

Glossary ...................................................... 399

Credits ....................................................... 405

Index ......................................................... 413


 
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