Hau E. Wind turbines: fundamentals, technologies, application, economics (Heidelberg et al., 2013). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаHau E. Wind turbines: fundamentals, technologies, application, economics. - 3rd, transl. ed. - Heidelberg et al.: Springer, 2013. - xviii, 879 p.: ill., tab. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. – Sub. ind.: p.871-879. - ISBN 978-3-642-27150-2
Шифр: (И/З 6-H37) 02
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
1    Windmills and Windwheels ................................... 1
1.1  The Origins of Windmills ................................... 1
1.2  European Windmills ......................................... 4
1.3  Economic Importance of Historical Windmills ............... 11
1.4  Scientific and Technical Development of Windmills ......... 13
1.5  The American Wind Turbine ................................. 17
     References ................................................ 21

2    Electrical Power from the Wind - The First Attempts ....... 23
2.1  Poul La Cour - A Pioneer in Denmark ....................... 23
2.2  Large Wind Power Plants - Ambitious Projects in Germany ... 28
2.3  1250 kW from the Wind - The First Large Wind Turbine in
     the US .................................................... 33
2.4  Wind Turbines in the Fifties - Before the "Energy
     Crisis" ................................................... 36
2.5  After the Energy Crisis - A New Start toward Modern Wind
     Power ..................................................... 43
2.6  The Large Experimental Turbines of the Eighties ........... 46
2.7  First Successes with the Small Wind Turbines in Denmark ... 57
2.8  The Wind Farms in the United States ....................... 58
     References ................................................ 63

3    Basic Concepts of Wind Energy Converters .................. 65
3.1  Rotors with a Vertical Axis of Rotation ................... 66
3.2  Horizontal Axis Rotors .................................... 69
3.3  Wind Energy Concentrators ................................. 72
3.4  Terms and Expressions ..................................... 77
     References ................................................ 78

4    Physical Principles of Wind Energy Conversion ............. 79
4.1  Betz's Elementary Momentum Theory ......................... 79
4.2  Wind Energy Converters Using Aerodynamic Drag or Lift ..... 84
     References ................................................ 87

5    Rotor Aerodynamics ........................................ 89
5.1  Mathematical Models and Calculations ...................... 90
     5.1.1  Blade Element Theory ............................... 91
     5.1.2  Vortex Model of Rotor Flow ......................... 96
     5.1.3  Numeric Flow S imul ation .......................... 97
     5.1.4  The Rotor Wake ..................................... 99
5.2  Rotor Power Characteristics .............................. 102
     5.2.1  Power and Torque Characteristics .................. 102
     5.2.2  Power Characteristics of Various Rotor
            Configurations .................................... 104
5.3  Aerodynamic Power Control ................................ 106
     5.3.1  Power Control by Rotor Blade Pitching ............. 107
     5.3.2  Passive Stall Control with Fixed Blade Pitch ...... 111
     5.3.3  Active Stall Control .............................. 115
     5.3.4  Transient Aerodynamic Effects and Boundary-Layer
            Control ........................................... 117
     5.3.5  Turning the Rotor Out of the Wind ................. 119
5.4  The Aerodynamic Airfoil .................................. 120
     5.4.1  Characteristic Properties ......................... 120
     5.4.2  Airfoil Geometry and Classification ............... 123
     5.4.3  Laminar Airfoils .................................. 128
     5.4.4  Influence on the Power Coefficient of the Rotor ... 132
5.5  Rotor-Design Features and Power Characteristics .......... 134
     5.5.1  Number of Rotor Blades ............................ 135
     5.5.2  Optimum Shape of the Rotor Blades ................. 136
     5.5.3  Rotor Blade Twist ................................. 143
     5.5.4  Blade Thickness ................................... 145
     5.5.5  Design Tip-Speed Ratio of the Rotor ............... 146
5.6  Existing Rotor Blade Designs ............................. 148
5.7  Yaw Control of the Rotor ................................. 152
5.8  Aerodynamics of Vertical-Axis Rotors ..................... 156
5.9  Experimental Rotor Aerodynamics .......................... 160
     5.9.1  Measurements on Models in the Wind Tunnel ......... 160
     5.9.2  Measurements on Site .............................. 163
     References ............................................... 164

6     Loads and Structural Stresses ........................... 167
6.1  Loads on the Wind Turbine ................................ 168
6.2  Coordinate Systems and Terminology ....................... 170
6.3  Sources of Loading ....................................... 171
     6.3.1  Gravity and Inertial Loads ........................ 172
     6.3.2  Uniform and Steady-State Air Flow ................. 173
     6.3.3  Vertical Wind Shear and Cross Winds ............... 177
     6.3.4  Cross Wind on the Rotor ........................... 178
     6.3.5  Tower Interference ................................ 179
     6.3.6  Wind Turbulence and Gusts ......................... 183
6.4  Design Load Assumptions .................................. 187
     6.4.1  International and National Design Standards ....... 188
     6.4.2  IEC Classes of Wind Turbines and German Wind
            Zones ............................................. 191
     6.4.3  Normal Wind Conditions ............................ 193
     6.4.4  Extreme Wind Conditions ........................... 194
     6.4.5  Other Climatic and Environmental Influences ....... 195
     6.4.6  Other External Conditions ......................... 197
     6.4.7  Safety Factors .................................... 198
6.5  Operational Status and Load Cases ........................ 199
     6.5.1  Normal Operation .................................. 199
     6.5.2  Technical Faults .................................. 201
6.6  Structural Stresses in the Wind Turbine .................. 203
     6.6.1  Kind of Stressing ................................. 203
     6.6.2  Load Spectra ...................................... 205
6.7  Mathematical Models of Structural Dynamics ............... 208
     6.7.1  Functional and Structural Modelling of the Wind
            Turbine ........................................... 208
     6.7.2  Representation of the Wind Turbulence ............. 209
     6.7.3  Analytical Approaches and Numerical Computer
            Codes ............................................. 213
6.8  Conceptual Design Features and Structural Stresses ....... 215
     6.8.1  Number of Rotor Blades ............................ 215
     6.8.2  Rotor Hub Hinges in Two-Blade Rotors .............. 217
     6.8.3  Stiffness of the Rotor Blades ..................... 220
     6.8.4  Power Control System .............................. 221
     6.8.5  Rotor Speed Flexibility and Variable-Speed
            Operation ......................................... 223
6.9  Measuring the Structural Stresses ........................ 226
     6.9.1  Rotor Blade Testing ............................... 227
     6.9.2  Data Acquisition Systems and Field Measurements ... 228
     References ............................................... 230

7    Vibration Characteristics ................................ 233
7.1  Exciting Forces and Vibrational Degrees of Freedom ....... 234
7.2  Aeroelastic Stability of Rotor Blades .................... 236
     7.2.1  Static Divergence ................................. 236
     7.2.2  Natural Frequencies and Vibration Modes ........... 237
     7.2.3  Typical Rotor Blade Vibrations .................... 239
7.3  Torsional Vibration of the Drive Train ................... 242
     7.3.1  Mathematical Model ................................ 242
     7.3.2  Equivalent Mechanical Models for the Electrical
            Grid Coupling ..................................... 246
     7.3.3  Natural Frequencies and Vibration Modes ........... 247
     7.3.4  Excitations and Resonances ........................ 249
7.4  Dynamics of the Yaw System ............................... 252
     7.4.1  Modelling and Moments Around the Yaw Axis ......... 252
     7.4.2  Excitation and Resonances ......................... 254
7.5  Vibration of the Whole Wind Turbine ...................... 256
     7.5.1  Tower Stiffness ................................... 256
     7.5.2  Vibrational Characteristics of Existing Wind
            Turbines .......................................... 258
7.6  Mathematical Simulation .................................. 264
     References ............................................... 267

8    Rotor Blades ............................................. 269
8.1  Materials ................................................ 270
8.2  Aircraft Wings as Model .................................. 272
8.3  Experimental Designs of Rotor Blades in the Past ......... 274
     8.3.1  Revited Aluminium Construction .................... 275
     8.3.2  Steel Designs ..................................... 277
     8.3.3  Traditional Wood Construction ..................... 280
     8.3.4  Previous Designs with Fibre-Reinforced
            Composites ........................................ 281
     8.3.5  Wood/Epoxy Composites ............................. 286
8.4  Modern Fibre-Reinforced Composite Blades ................. 287
     8.4.1  Fibre Composites Technology ....................... 287
     8.4.2  Structural Design of the Rotor Blades ............. 289
     8.4.3  Manufacturing Methods ............................. 290
8.5  Blade Connection to the Rotor Hub ........................ 293
8.6  Comparison of Rotor Blade Designs ........................ 296
8.7  Aerodynamic Brakes on Stall-Controlled Rotors ............ 300
8.8  Lightning Protection ..................................... 302
8.9  Ice Warning and De-icing ................................. 303
     References ............................................... 304

9    Mechanical Drive Train and Nacelle ....................... 305
9.1  Fundamental Considerations of Power Transmission ......... 306
9.2  Previous Experimental Designs ............................ 309
     9.2.1  Generator in the Tower Base ....................... 310
     9.2.2  Vertically Positioned Generator in the Tower
            Head .............................................. 310
9.3  Current Standard Designs ................................. 312
     9.3.1  Gearbox between Rotor and Generator ............... 312
     9.3.2  Direct Rotor-Driven Generator ..................... 314
9.4  Rotor Hub ................................................ 318
     9.4.1  Cast Steel Rotor Hubs for Three-Blade Rotors ...... 320
     9.4.2  Rotor Hub Concepts for Two-Bladed Rotors .......... 321
9.5  Blade Pitch Mechanism .................................... 325
     9.5.1  Rotor Blade Bearings .............................. 327
     9.5.2  Blade Pitch Systems with Hydraulic Drive .......... 329
     9.5.3  Electrically Driven Blade Pitch Systems ........... 333
     9.5.4  Passive Blade Pitching ............................ 335
     9.5.5  Redundancy and Safety Issues ...................... 336
9.6  Rotor Shaft and Bearing Assembly ......................... 338
     9.6.1  Bearing Technology ................................ 338
     9.6.2  Rotor Shaft with Separate Bearings ................ 341
     9.6.3  Three-Point Suspension of Rotor Shaft and
            Gearbox ........................................... 343
     9.6-4  Rotor Shaft Integrated into the Gearbox ........... 344
     9.6.5  The "Single-Bearing" Concept ...................... 345
     9.6.6  Rotor Support on a Fixed Axle ..................... 346
9.7  Rotor Brake .............................................. 347
9.8  Gearbox .................................................. 350
     9.8.1  Gearbox Configurations ............................ 350
     9.8.2  External Load Specifications for the Gearbox ...... 354
     9.8.3  Internal Gearbox Dimensioning and Design .......... 357
     9.8.4  Efficiency and Noise Emission ..................... 358
9.9  Variable-Speed Power-Splitting Gearboxes ................. 361
9.10 Torsional Flexibility in the Mechanical Drive Train ...... 363
9.11 Installation of the Electric Generator ................... 366
9.12 Nacelle .................................................. 368
     9.12.1 Auxiliary Systems ................................. 368
     9.12.2 Load Carrying Concept ............................. 371
     9.12.3 External Shape - Aesthetic Aspects ................ 374
9.13 Yaw System ............................................... 377
9.14 Assembly and Functional Testing .......................... 280
     References ............................................... 382

10   Electrical System ........................................ 385
10.1 Synchronous and Asynchronous Generator ................... 386
     10.1.1 Synchronous Generator ............................. 386
     10.1.2 Induction Generator ............................... 390
     10.1.3 Generator with Permanent Excitation ............... 394
10.2 Assessment Criteria for Using Generators in Wind
     Turbines ................................................. 398
10.3 Fixed-Speed Generator Systems ............................ 401
     10.3.1 Synchronous Generator Directly Coupled to the
            Grid .............................................. 401
     10.3.2 Induction Generator Directly Coupled to the Grid .. 403
     10.3.3 Variable-Slip Induction Generator ................. 405
     10.3.4 Multi-Speed Generator Systems ..................... 406
10.4 Variable Speed Generator Systems with Inverter ........... 408
     10.4.1 Frequency Inverters ............................... 409
     10.4.2 Synchronous Generator with Inverter ............... 411
     10.4.3 Induction Generator with Oversynchronous Cascade .. 413
     10.4.4 Double-Fed Induction Generator .................... 414
10.5 Directly Rotor-Driven Variable-Speed Generators .......... 417
     10.5.1 Synchronous Generator with Electric Excitation .... 417
     10.5.2 Direct-Drive Generators with Permanent-Magnet
            Excitation ........................................ 419
10.6 Complete Electrical System of a Wind Turbine ............. 421
     10.6.1 Large Turbines .................................... 421
     10.6.2 Small Wind Turbines ............................... 424
10.7 Comparison of Electrical Concepts ........................ 426
     References ............................................... 428

11   Control Systems and Operational Sequence ................. 429
11.1 Input Data Measurement ................................... 430
     11.1.1 Wind Measuring System ............................. 431
     11.1.2 Measuring Electric Power .......................... 434
     11.1.3 Other Input Data .................................. 435
11.2 Basic Technology of Controllers .......................... 435
11.3 Yaw Control .............................................. 437
11.4 Power Control with Rotor Blade Pitching .................. 438
     11.4.1 System Characteristics and Analytical Design
            Methods ........................................... 440
     11.4.2 Fixed-Speed Generators Directly Coupled to the
            Grid .............................................. 443
     11.4.3 Variable-Speed Operation with Frequency
            Converter ......................................... 448
     11.4.4 Isolated Operation without Grid ................... 450
11.5 Power Limiting by Aerodynamic Stall ...................... 452
     11.5.1 Parallel-Grid Operation ........................... 452
     11.5.2 Isolated Operation ................................ 453
     11.5.3 Active Stall Control .............................. 454
11.6 Operational Sequence and Safety System ................... 457
     11.6.1 Operational States ................................ 457
     11.6.2 Safety System ..................................... 459
11.7 Control System Implementation ............................ 460
11.8 Interaction with the Grid ................................ 462
     References ............................................... 465

12   The Tower ................................................ 467
12.1 Tower Configurations ..................................... 468
12.2 Strength and Stiffness Design ............................ 471
12.3 Tower Demensioning Conforming to German Building
     Regulations .............................................. 473
12.4 Free-Standing Tubular-Steel Towers ....................... 474
     12.4.1 Stiffness and Structural Mass ..................... 474
     12.4.2 Manufacturing Techniques and Construction ......... 477
     12.4.3 Climbing Aids and Internal Installations .......... 480
12.5 Lattice Towers ........................................... 483
12.6 Concrete Towers .......................................... 487
12.7 Concrete-Steel Hybrid Towers ............................. 492
12.8 Comparison of Different Tower Concepts ................... 494
12.9 Increasing the Height with Different Tower Concepts ...... 496
12.10 The Foundation .......................................... 499
     References ............................................... 503

13   The Wind Resource ........................................ 505
13.1 Causes of the Wind and of the Power in the Wind .......... 505
13.2 Global Distribution of Wind Resources .................... 508
13.3 Wind Resources in Europe ................................. 516
13.4 Characteristic Parameters of the Wind .................... 517
     13.4.1 Mean Annual Wind Speed and Wind Speed Frequency
            Distribution ...................................... 517
     13.4.2 Increase in Wind Speed with Altitude .............. 520
     13.4.3 Steadiness of the Wind ............................ 524
     13.4.4 Wind Turbulence and Gusts ......................... 529
13.5 Topography and Local Wind Flow ........................... 532
13.6 Measuring and Determining the Wind Speed ................. 534
     13.6.1 Measuring Techniques .............................. 534
     13.6.2 Ascertaining the Wind Data and the Energy Yield
            from the European Wind Atlas ...................... 539
     13.6.3 Numeric Models of Three-Dimensional Wind Fields ... 542
13.7 About the Wind Energy Potential .......................... 543
     References ............................................... 547

14   Power Output and Energy Yield ............................ 549
14.1 From Rotor Power Characteristics to Turbine Power Curve .. 550
     14.1.1 Installed Generator Power and Rotor Speed ......... 550
     14.1.2 Losses due to Power Control and Operational
            Sequence .......................................... 554
     14.1.3 Efficiencies in the Mechanical-Electrical Energy
            Conversion ........................................ 557
     14.1.4 Power Coefficients of Today's Turbines ............ 559
14.2 Determination of the Power Curve ......................... 560
     14.2.1 Definitions, Characteristics and Warranty ......... 561
     14.2.2 Measuring the Power Curve ......................... 563
14.3 Site-Related Influences on the Power Curve ............... 569
     14.3.1 Complex Terrain ................................... 569
     14.3.2 Air Density ....................................... 570
     14.3.3 Turbulence ........................................ 573
     14.3.4 Other Weather-Related Influences .................. 575
     14.3.5 Soiling of the Rotor Blades ....................... 575
14.4 Uniformity of Power Output ............................... 576
14.5 Annual Energy Yield ...................................... 579
     14.5.1 Method of Calculation ............................. 579
     14.5.2 Approximate Calculation of the Energy Yield ....... 581
     14.5.3 Technical Availability ............................ 584
     14.5.4 Safety Deductions for Economic Calculations ....... 588
14.6 Wind Regime and Energy Yield ............................. 589
14.7 Major Design Features and Energy Yield ................... 591
     14.7.1 Rotor Power Coefficient ........................... 592
     14.7.2 Rotor Diameter .................................... 593
     14.7.3 Optimal Rotor Speed and Variable Rotor Speed
            Operation ......................................... 594
     14.7.4 Power Control: Blade Pitch Contra Stall ........... 597
     14.7.5 Installed Generator Power ......................... 598
     14.7.6 Rotor Hub Height .................................. 600
     14.7.7 Operational Wind Speed Range ...................... 601
     14.7.8 Efficiency of a Wind Turbine as Energy Converter .. 602
     References ............................................... 603

15   Environmental Impact ..................................... 605
15.1 Hazards for the Environment .............................. 606
     15.1.1 How Far Can a Rotor Blade Fly? .................... 606
     15.1.2 Safety Risks ...................................... 609
15.2 Wind Turbine Noise ....................................... 610
     15.2.1 Acoustic Parameters and Permissible Noise Levels .. 610
     15.2.2 Noise Sources in Wind Turbines .................... 613
     15.2.3 Noise Emission of Current Wind Turbines ........... 617
15.3 Shadow Effects ........................................... 622
15.4 Interference with Radio and Television Signals ........... 625
15.5 Impact on Bird Life ...................................... 628
15.6 Land Use ................................................. 629
15.7 Visual Impact on the Landscape ........................... 631
15.8 Utilisation of Wind Energy and Climate Protection ........ 633
     15.8.1 Effect on the Local Climate ....................... 633
     15.8.2 Utilisation of Wind Power and C02 Emissions ....... 634
     References ............................................... 636

16   Commercial Applications of Wind Turbines ................. 637
16.1 Stand-Alone Wind Turbine Applications .................... 638
     16.1.1 Autonomous Power Supply - Storage Problems ........ 639
     16.1.2 Residential Heating with Wind Energy .............. 645
     16.1.3 Pumping Water ..................................... 648
     16.1.4 Desalination of Sea Water ......................... 650
16.2 Small Grids with Diesel Generators and Wind Turbines ..... 653
16.3 Wind Turbines Connected with Large Grids ................. 657
     16.3.1 Distributed Wind Turbines Operated by Private
            Consumers ......................................... 657
     16.3.2 Wind Park Installations ........................... 658
16.4 Integration into the Utility Generation System ........... 662
     16.4.1 Operational Strategies and Control Issues ......... 663
     16.4.2 Adaption of the Utility Grids to Renewable
            Energy Utilisation ................................ 665
     16.4.3 Contribution to Firm Power ........................ 666
16.5 Wind Turbine Industry and Market ......................... 668
     16.5.1 Historical Development of the Markets ............. 668
     16.5.2 The Wind Turbine Manufacturers .................... 670
     16.5.3 Components Industry, Service Providers and Basic
            Research .......................................... 672
     References ............................................... 675

17   Offshore Wind Energy Utilisation ......................... 677
17.1 Important Technical Issues of Offshore Siting ............ 678
     17.1.1 Technical Requirements for the Wind Turbines ...... 678
     17.1.2 Foundation on the Sea Floor ....................... 681
     17.1.3 Electrical Infrastructure ......................... 688
     17.1.4 Transportation and Installation ................... 694
17.2 Operational Issues of Offshore Wind Turbines ............. 697
     17.2.1 Accessibility at Poor Weather Conditions .......... 697
     17.2.2 Servicing and Maintenance ......................... 699
17.3 Offshore Wind Energy in the North Sea and in the Baltic
     Sea ...................................................... 701
     17.3.1 Oceanographic Conditions and Wind Resources ....... 701
     17.3.2 Legal Situation ................................... 704
     17.3.3 Criteria for the Permission ....................... 706
     17.3.4 The First Offshore Wind Parks ..................... 708
     17.3.5 Commercial Offshore Wind Parks .................... 709
     References ............................................... 718

18   Wind Turbine Installation and Operation .................. 719
18.1 Project Development ...................................... 720
     18.1.1 Search for a Site and Acquisition of Land Lease
            Agreements ........................................ 720
     18.1.2 Preplanning and Building Permission ............... 721
18.2 Technical Layout of Wind Park Installations .............. 724
     18.2.1 Wind Turbine Spacing .............................. 725
     18.2.2 Internal Electrical Cabling ....................... 729
     18.2.3 Grid Connection ................................... 732
     18.2.4 Site Preparation and Building Activities .......... 738
18.3 Transportation to the Site ............................... 741
18.4 Erection on the Site ..................................... 745
     18.4.1 Standard Method ................................... 745
     18.4.2 Erection without Heavy Lifting Equipment .......... 749
     18.4.3 Extremely Large Installations ..................... 752
     18.4.4 Large Experimental Turbines with Two-Bladed Rotor . 755
18.5 Commisioning ............................................. 760
     18.5.1 Commercial Wind Turbines .......................... 760
     18.5.2 Experimental Turbines and Prototypes .............. 761
18.6 Operation and Monitoring ................................. 763
     18.6.1 Acquisition of Operational Data ................... 763
     18.6.2 Monitoring of Large Wind Parks .................... 767
     18.6.3 Technical Condition Monitoring .................... 768
18.7 Safety Aspects ........................................... 770
     18.7.1 Technical Safety Systems .......................... 770
     18.7.2 Risks from Extreme Weather Conditions ............. 775
     18.8 Maintenance and Repair .............................. 779
     18.8.1 Routine Maintenance ............................... 780
     18.8.2 Causes of Damage and Repair Risks ................. 781
     18.8.3 Statistical Evaluations ........................... 785
     References ............................................... 786

19   Wind Turbine Costs ....................................... 789
19.1 Manufacturing Costs and Selling Prices of Wind Turbines .. 790
19.2 Specific Costs and Reference Parameters .................. 791
     19.2.1 Structural Masses as a Basis for Determining
            the Manufacturing Costs ........................... 792
     19.2.2 Structural Masses of Present Wind Turbines ........ 798
     19.2.3 Manufacturing Cost Calculation on the Basis
            of Mass-Related Cost Figures ...................... 801
     19.2.4 Manufacturing Costs and Price Calculation ......... 803
     19.2.5 Design Features and Manufacturing Costs ........... 809
     19.2.6 Economy of Scale in Series Production ............. 811
     19.2.7 Lowering Costs through Further Technical
            Development ....................................... 813
     19.2.8 Alternative Technical Concepts and Achievable
            Costs ............................................. 814
     19.2.9 On the Development Costs of Wind Turbines ......... 816
     19.2.10 Development of Sales Prices for Wind Turbines .... 817
19.3 Investment Costs for Turnkey Installations ............... 820
     19.3.1 Acquisition of the Project Rights ................. 820
     19.3.2 Technical Planning and Application for the
            Building Permission ............................... 820
     19.3.3 Procurement of Wind Turbines ...................... 821
     19.3.4 Technical Infrastructure .......................... 822
     19.3.5 Organisational Costs .............................. 825
     19.3.6 Selected Examples for Turn-Key Costs .............. 826
19.4 Operating and Maintenance Costs .......................... 829
     19.4.1 Maintenance and Repairs ........................... 830
     19.4.2 Insurances ........................................ 832
     19.4.3 Other Operating Costs ............................. 833
     19.4.4 Total Annual Operating Costs ...................... 834
19.5 Offshore Projects ........................................ 834
     19.5.1 Investment Costs .................................. 834
     19.5.2 Operating Costs ................................... 841
     References ............................................... 842

20   Wind Turbine Economics ................................... 845
20.1 Corporate Organisation of the Project and Financing ...... 846
20.2 Power Production Costs and Repayment Periods ............. 848
     20.2.1 Basics for Calculating the Costs of Electricity ... 849
     20.2.2 Static Annuity Approach ........................... 850
     20.2.3 Offshore Installations ............................ 854
     20.2.4 Dynamic Calculation of Economic Viability ......... 857
     20.2.5 Cash-Flow Projection .............................. 859
20.3 Competition with Conventional Energy Sources ............. 863
20.4 Energy Recovery in Wind Turbines ......................... 866
20.5 The Effect of Wind Energy Utilisation on Employment ...... 867
20.6 Macroeconomic Framework and Renewable Energies ........... 868
     References ............................................... 870

Subject Index ................................................. 871

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