Ohnaka M. The physics of rock failure and earthquakes (Cambridge, 2013). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаOhnaka M. The physics of rock failure and earthquakes. - Cambridge: Cambridge univ. press, 2013. - x, 270 p.: ill. - Bibliogr.: p.251-266. - Ind.: p.267-270. - ISBN 978-1-107-03006-0
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... viii
1    Introduction ............................................... 1
2    Fundamentals of rock failure physics ....................... 6
2.1  Mechanical properties and constitutive relations ........... 6
     2.1.1  Elastic deformation ................................. 6
     2.1.2  Ductile deformation ................................. 7
     2.1.3  Fracture ............................................ 9
     2.1.4  Friction ........................................... 11
2.2  Basics of rock fracture mechanics ......................... 15
     2.2.1  Energy release rate and resistance to rupture
            growth ............................................. 15
     2.2.2  Stress concentration and cohesive zone model ....... 17
     2.2.3  Breakdown zone model for shear failure ............. 20
     2.2.4  J-integral and energy criterion for shear
            failure ............................................ 22
     2.2.5  Relation between resistance to rapture growth and
            constitutive relation parameters ................... 26

3    Laboratory-derived constitutive relations for shear
     failure ................................................... 28
3.1  Shear failure of intact rock .............................. 28
     3.1.1  Method and apparatus used .......................... 28
     3.1.2  Constitutive relations derived from data on the
            shear failure of intact rock ....................... 32
     3.1.3  Geometric irregularity of shear-fractured
            surfaces and characteristic length ................. 36
3.2  Frictional slip failure on precut rock interface .......... 39
     3.2.1  Method and apparatus used .......................... 39
     3.2.2  Geometric irregularity of precut fault surfaces
            and characteristic length .......................... 44
     3.2.3  Constitutive relations derived from data on
            frictional stick-slip failure ...................... 45
     3.2.4  Laboratory-derived relationships between physical
            quantities observed during dynamic slip rupture
            propagation ........................................ 50
3.3  Unifying constitutive formulation and a constitutive
     scaling law ............................................... 55
     3.3.1 Unification of constitutive relations for shear
           fracture and for frictional slip failure ............ 55
     3.3.2  A constitutive scaling law ......................... 61
     3.3.3  Critical energy required for shear fracture and
            for frictional stick-slip failure .................. 63
     3.3.4  Stability/instability of the breakdown process ..... 67
     3.3.5  Breakdown zone size ................................ 69
3.4  Dependence of constitutive law parameters on
     environmental factors ..................................... 70
     3.4.1  Introduction ....................................... 70
     3.4.2  Dependence of shear failure strength on
            environmental factors .............................. 72
     3.4.3  Dependence of breakdown stress drop on
            environmental factors .............................. 82
     3.4.4  Dependence of breakdown displacement on
            environmental factors .............................. 88

4    Constitutive laws for earthquake ruptures ................. 91
4.1  Basic foundations for constitutive formulations ........... 91
4.2  Rate-dependent constitutive formulations .................. 93
4.3  Slip-dependent constitutive formulations .................. 99
4.4  Depth dependence of constitutive law parameters .......... 106

5    Earthquake generation processes .......................... 121
5.1  Shear failure nucleation processes observed in the
     laboratory ............................................... 121
     5.1.1  Introduction ...................................... 121
     5.1.2  Experimental method ............................... 122
     5.1.3  Nucleation phases observed on faults with
            different surface roughnesses ..................... 124
     5.1.4  Scaling of the nucleation zone size ............... 139
5.2  Earthquake rupture nucleation ............................ 143
     5.2.1  Seismogenic background ............................ 143
     5.2.2  Physical modeling and theoretical derivation of
            the nucleation zone size .......................... 145
     5.2.3  Comparison of theoretical relations with
            seismological data ................................ 152
     5.2.4  Foreshock activity associated with the
            nucleation process ................................ 157
5.3  Dynamic propagation and generation of strong motion
     seismic waves ............................................ 160
     5.3.1  Slip velocity and slip acceleration in the
            breakdown zone .................................... 160
     5.3.2  The cutoff frequency ƒmaxS of the power spectral
            density of slip acceleration at the source ........ 167
     5.3.3  Environmental factors for the generation of
            high-frequency strong motion at the source ........ 174

6    Physical scale-dependence ................................ 179
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 179
6.2  Scaling property incorporated into the slip-dependent
     constitutive law ......................................... 180
6.3  Root cause of scale-dependence ........................... 182
6.4  Physical scaling of scale-dependent physical quantities .. 187
     6.4.1  Scaling relationships between Xc and Dc, and
            between Lc and Dc ................................. 187
     6.4.2  Physical scaling of the duration time of shear
            rapture nucleation ................................ 189
     6.4.3  Scale-dependence of apparent shear rupture
            energy ............................................ 195
6.5  Fault heterogeneity and the Gutenberg-Richter
     frequency-magnitude relation ............................. 197

7    Large earthquake generation cycles and accompanying
     seismic activity ......................................... 200
7.1  The cyclical process of typical large earthquakes on
     a fault .................................................. 200
7.2  The process leading up to a large earthquake and
     seismic activity ......................................... 209
     7.2.1  Seismic activity at later stages of the
            recurrence interval ............................... 209
     7.2.2  Seismic activity immediately before a mainshock
            earthquake ........................................ 223
7.3  Predictability of large earthquakes ...................... 232
     7.3.1  Introduction ...................................... 232
     7.3.2  Long-term forecasting ............................. 234
     7.3.3  Intermediate-term forecasting ..................... 236
     7.3.4  Short-term forecasting ............................ 242
List of illustration credits .................................. 248
References .................................................... 251
Index ......................................................... 267


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