Van Reybrouck D. From primitives to primates: a history of ethnographic and primatological analogies in the study of prehistory (Leiden, 2012). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаVan Reybrouck D. From primitives to primates: a history of ethnographic and primatological analogies in the study of prehistory. - Leiden: Sidestone press, 2012. - 373 p.: ill. - Bibliogr.: p.331-371. - ISBN 978-90-8890-095-2
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ......................................................... 9
Introduction .................................................... 1

1  Analogies ................................................... 13
   Analogies in science ........................................ 13
   Analogies in archaeology .................................... 14
   Models and analogies ........................................ 16
   Analogy as a process ........................................ 18
   The structure of analogy .................................... 19
   Truth and validity .......................................... 21
   Entities and relations ...................................... 23
   An ideal case ............................................... 26
   Strengthening the analogy ................................... 27
   The practice of analogy ..................................... 32
   The analogical algorithm .................................... 33
   A reading grid .............................................. 36
   A corpus of texts ........................................... 38
   A choice of focus ........................................... 41
   Conclusion .................................................. 42
2  The comparative method ...................................... 43
   Early ethnographic parallels ................................ 44
   The impact of the three-age system .......................... 48
   A revolution in antiquarian thought? ........................ 48
   The dualism of Sven Nilsson and Daniel Wilson ............... 51
   Comparative ethnography, folklore and 'the parallax of
   man' ........................................................ 54
   An important device ......................................... 58
   The antiquity of man and early social evolutionism .......... 59
   The first generation of social evolutionists ................ 60
   The function of contemporary savagery ....................... 63
   Ethnographic enthusiasm ..................................... 69
   Degenerationism and classical evolutionism .................. 71
   Degenerationist doubts ...................................... 72
   A second round .............................................. 74
   Morgan's scheme ............................................. 79
   A zenith of similarity ...................................... 80
   Evolutionist fragmentation .................................. 82
   Archaeology and anthropology diverge ........................ 82
   Tylor and the Tasmanians .................................... 84
   The comparative method's swan-song: Sollas .................. 89
   Divergence of opinion ....................................... 91
   Conclusion .................................................. 92
3  Ethnoarchaeology ............................................ 95
   The dormancy of ethnographic analogy ........................ 95
   Innovations in the Interbellum .............................. 97
   Marxism and folklore ....................................... 101
   Postwar pessimism in Britain ............................... 105
   The situation in the United States ......................... 112
   Cultural continuity ........................................ 114
   The dilemma of the New Archaeology ......................... 115
   The new analogy and the New Archaeology .................... 115
   Fieldwork and cautionary tales ............................. 120
   Hypothetico-deductive reasoning or the benefits of
   testing .................................................... 124
   Between critique and inspiration ........................... 128
   The heyday of ethnoarchaeology ............................. 129
   The impossibility of independent testing ................... 130
   A thriving subdiscipline ................................... 135
   Beyond analogy? ............................................ 138
   Place and population: a case study ......................... 145
   Source and subject-side strategies ......................... 154
   Decline and fall of ethnoarchaeology ....................... 157
   The isolation of hunter-gatherer ethnoarchaeology .......... 158
   Anthropological doubts about hunter-gatherers .............. 163
   Contextual ethnoarchaeology ................................ 165
   Post-processual archaeology ................................ 175
   An age of extremes ......................................... 185
   Conclusion ................................................. 186
   The strength of ethnoarchaeological analogies .............. 188
   Optimism, pessimism and the redundancy of analogy .......... 192
4  Primate models ............................................. 195
   The idea of a primate model ................................ 195
   First episode: from primate anatomy to human anatomy ....... 197
   Second episode: from living to fossil anatomy .............. 200
   Third episode: from primate behaviour to human behaviour ... 202
   Fourth episode: from primate behaviour to early human
   behaviour .................................................. 205
   Converging circumstances ................................... 210
   Baboons .................................................... 212
   Washburn's baboons: from typical primates to terrestrial
   specialists ................................................ 213
   The canonization of the baboon model ....................... 227
   Why baboons? ............................................... 231
   Social carnivores and geladas .............................. 234
   From subsistence to society: the social carnivore analogy .. 235
   From dentition to diet: the gelada analogy ................. 240
   Remote sources and logical consistency ..................... 245
   Chimpanzees ................................................ 247
   The feminist critique ...................................... 248
   A perfect analogy .......................................... 253
   The seductiveness of similarity ............................ 258
   Bonobos .................................................... 259
   The disputed bonobo model .................................. 259
   Bonobo behaviour ........................................... 265
   Entrapped by resemblance ................................... 267
   The crisis of traditional modelling ........................ 268
   The weaknesses of referential modelling .................... 269
   Phylogenetic comparison or cladistics of behaviour ......... 274
   Behavioural ecology ........................................ 278
   Ethoarchaeology ............................................ 281
   The ongoing lure of referential models ..................... 284
   Beyond single-species models ............................... 286
   Conclusions ................................................ 288
   The strength of primate models ............................. 288
   A change in approach ....................................... 291
   Primate modelling, primatology and archaeology ............. 293
5  A comparative history of debates ........................... 297
   The comparative method and ethnoarchaeology ................ 297
   Projections and processes .................................. 297
   Ethnoarchaeology and primate modelling ..................... 300
   The impact of functionalism ................................ 300
   Archaeologists and primate models .......................... 301
   Primatologists and ethnographic models ..................... 303
   Divergent debates .......................................... 309
   Primate modelling and the comparative method ............... 312
   Proximity, privilege, projection and paradoxes ............. 312
   Differences ................................................ 316
   Similarity but no continuity ............................... 317
   Conclusion ................................................. 321
   Epilogue ................................................... 329
   References ................................................. 331

Curriculum Vitae .............................................. 373


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