Forest restoration in landscapes: beyond planting trees (New York, 2005). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаForest restoration in landscapes: beyond planting trees / ed. by S.Mansourian, D.D.Vallauri, N.Dudley. - New York: Springer Science + Business Media, 2005. - xxviii, 437 p.: ill. - Пер. загл.: Восстановление лесных ландшафтов: помимо посадки деревьев. - ISBN 0-387-25525-7
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Foreword by Chief Emeka Anyaoku, President, WWF
International ................................................... v
Preface by Chris Hails, Programme Director, WWF
International ................................................. vii
Note from the Editors .......................................... ix
Acknowledgements ............................................... xi
Acronyms ...................................................... xxi
Contributors' List .......................................... xxiii

           Part A  Toward a Wider Perspective in Forest 
                           Restoration

Section I  Introducing Forest Landscape Restoration

Chapter 1
Forest Landscape Restoration in Context
   Nigel Dudley, Stephanie Mansourian, and Daniel Vallauri ...... 3

Chapter 2
Overview of Forest Restoration Strategies and Terms
   Stephanie Mansourian ......................................... 8

Section II  The Challenging Context Of Forest Restoration
Today

Chapter 3
Impact of Forest Loss and Degradation on Biodiversity
   Nigel Dudley ................................................ 17

Chapter 4
The Impacts of Degradation and Forest Loss on Human Weil-
Being and Its Social and Political Relevance for Restoration
   Mary Hobley ................................................. 22

Chapter 5
Restoring Forest Landscapes in the Face of Climate Change
   Jennifer Biringer and Lara J. Hansen  ....................... 31

Section III  Forest Restoration in Modern Broad-Scale
Conservation

Chapter 6
Restoration as a Strategy to Contribute to Ecoregion Visions
   John Morrison, Jeffrey Sayer, and Colby Loucks .............. 41

Chapter 7
Why Do We Need to Consider Restoration in a Landscape Context?
   Nigel Dudley, John Morrison, James Aronson, and
   Stephanie Mansourian ........................................ 51

Chapter 8
Addressing Trade-Offs in Forest Landscape Restoration
   Katrina Brown ............................................... 59

      Part В  Key Preparatory Steps Toward Restoring Forests
                    Within a Landscape Context

Section IV  Overview of the Planning Process

Chapter 9
An Attempt to Develop a Framework for Restoration Planning
   Daniel Vallauri, James Aronson, and Nigel Dudley ............ 65

Section V  Identifying and Addressing Challenges/Constraints

Chapter 10
Assessing and Addressing Threats in Restoration Programmes
   Doreen Robinson ............................................. 73

Chapter 11
Perverse Policy Incentives
   Kirsten Schuyt .............................................. 78

Chapter 12
Land Ownership and Forest Restoration
   Gonzalo Oviedo .............................................. 84

Chapter 13
Challenges for Forest Landscape Restoration Based on WWF's
Experience to Date
   Stephanie Mansourian and Nigel Dudley ....................... 94

Section VI  A Suite of Planning Tools

Chapter 14
Goals and Targets of Forest Landscape Restoration
   Jeffrey Sayer .............................................. 101

Chapter 15
Identifying and Using Reference Landscapes for Restoration
   Nigel Dudley ............................................... 109

Chapter 16
Mapping and Modelling as Tools to Set Targets, Identify
Opportunities, and Measure Progress
   Thomas F. Allnutt .......................................... 115

Chapter 17
Policy Interventions for Forest Landscape Restoration
   Nigel Dudley ............................................... 121

Chapter 18
Negotiations and Conflict Management
   Scott Jones and Nigel Dudley ............................... 126

Chapter 19
Practical Interventions that Will Support Restoration in
Broad-Scale Conservation Based on WWF Experiences
   Stephanie Mansourian ....................................... 136

Section VII  Monitoring and Evaluation

Chapter 20
Monitoring Forest Restoration Projects in the Context of
an Adaptive Management Cycle
   Sheila O'Connor, Nick Salafsky, and Dan Salzer ............. 145

Chapter 21
Monitoring and Evaluating Forest Restoration Success
   Daniel Vallauri, James Aronson, Nigel Dudley, and
   Ramon Vallejo .............................................. 150

Section VIII  Financing and Promoting Forest Landscape
Restoration

Chapter 22
Opportunities for Long-Term Financing of Forest Restoration
in Landscapes
   Kirsten Schuyt ............................................. 161

Chapter 23
Payment for Environmental Services and Restoration
   Kirsten Schuyt ............................................. 166

Chapter 24
Carbon Knowledge Projects and Forest Landscape Restoration
   Jessica Orrego ............................................. 171

Chapter 25
Marketing and Communications Opportunities: How to Promote
and Market Forest Landscape Restoration
   Soh Koon Chng .............................................. 176

              Part С  Implementing Forest Restoration

Section IX  Restoring Ecological Functions

Chapter 26
Restoring Quality in Existing Native Forest Landscapes
   Nigel Dudley ............................................... 185

Chapter 27
Restoring Soil and Ecosystem Processes
   Lawrence R. Walker ......................................... 192

Chapter 28
Active Restoration of Boreal Forest Habitats for Target
Species
   Harri Karjalainen .......................................... 197

Chapter 29
Restoration of Deadwood as a Critical Microhabitat in
Forest Landscapes
   Nigel Dudley and Daniel Vallauri ........................... 203

Chapter 30
Restoration of Protected Area Values
   Nigel Dudley ............................................... 208

Section X  Restoring Socioeconomic Values

Chapter 31
Using Nontimber Forest Products for Restoring Environmental,
Social, and Economic Functions
   Pedro Regato and Nora Berrahmouni .......................... 215

Chapter 32
An Historical Account of Fuelwood Restoration Efforts
   Don Gilmour ................................................ 223

Chapter 33
Restoring Water Quality and Quantity
   Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton ............................... 228

Chapter 34
Restoring Landscapes for Traditional Cultural Values
   Gladwin Joseph and Stephanie Mansourian .................... 233

Section XI  A Selection of Tools that Return Trees to the
Landscape

Chapter 35
Overview of Technical Approaches to Restoring Tree Cover at
the Site Level
   Stephanie Mansourian, David Lamb, and Don Gilmour .......... 241

Chapter 36
Stimulating Natural Regeneration
   Silvia Holz and Guillermo Placet ........................... 250

Chapter 37
Managing and Directing Natural Succession
   Steve Whisenant ............................................ 257

Chapter 38
Selecting Tree Species for Plantation
   Florencia Montagnini ....................................... 262

Chapter 39
Developing Firebreaks
   Eduard Plana, Rufi Cerdan, and Marc Castellnou ............. 269

Chapter 40
Agroforestry as a Tool for Forest Landscape Restoration
   Thomas K. Erdmann .......................................... 274

          Part D  Addressing Specific Aspects of Forest 
                           Restoration

Section XII  Restoration of Different Forest Types

Chapter 41
Restoring Dry Tropical Forests
   James Aronson, Daniel Vallauri, Tanguy Jaffre, and
   Porter P. Lowry II ......................................... 285

Chapter 42
Restoring Tropical Moist Broad-Leaf Forests
   David Lamb ................................................. 291

Chapter 43
Restoring Tropical Montane Forests
   Manuel R. Guariguata ....................................... 298

Chapter 44
Restoring Floodplain Forests
   Simon Dufour and Hervée Piégay ............................. 306

Chapter 45
Restoring Mediterranean Forests
   Ramon Vallejo .............................................. 313

Chapter 46
Restoring Temperate Forests
   Adrian Newton and Alan Watson Featherstone ................. 320

Section XIII  Restoring After Disturbances

Chapter 47
Forest Landscape Restoration After Fires
   Peter Moore ................................................ 331

Chapter 48
Restoring Forests After Violent Storms
   Daniel Vallauri ............................................ 339

Chapter 49
Managing the Risk of Invasive Alien Species in Restoration
   Jeffrey A. McNeely ......................................... 345

Chapter 50
First Steps in Erosion Control
   Steve Whisenant ............................................ 350

Chapter 51
Restoring Forests After Land Abandonment
   Jose M. Rey Benayas ........................................ 356

Chapter 52
Restoring Overlogged Tropical Forests
   Cesar Sabogal and Robert Nasi .............................. 361

Chapter 53
Opencast Mining Reclamation
   José Manuel Nicolau Ibarra and Mariano Moreno de las 
   Heras ...................................................... 370

Section XIV  Plantations in the Landscape

Chapter 54
The Role of Commercial Plantations in Forest Landscape
Restoration
   Jeffrey Sayer and Chris Elliot ............................. 379

Chapter 55
Attempting to Restore Biodiversity in Even-Aged Plantations
   Florencia Montagnini ....................................... 384

Chapter 56
Best Practices for Industrial Plantations
   Nigel Dudley ............................................... 392

            Part E  Lessons Learned and the Way Forward

Chapter 57
What Has WWF Learned About Restoration at an Ecoregional
Scale?
   Nigel Dudley ............................................... 401

Chapter 58
Local Participation, Livelihood Needs, and Institutional
Arrangements: Three Keys to Sustainable Rehabilitation of
Degraded Tropical Forest Lands
   Unna Chokkalingam, Cesar Sabogal, Everaldo Almeida,
   Antonio P. Carandang, Tini Gumartini, Wil de Jong,
   Silvio Brienza, Jr., Abel Meza Lopez Murniati,
   Ani Adiwinata Nawir, Lukas Rumboko, Takeshi Toma,
   Eva Wollenberg, and Zhou Zaizhi ............................ 405

Chapter 59
A Way Forward: Working Together Toward a Vision for
Restored Forest Landscapes
   Stephanie Mansourian, Mark Aldrich, and Nigel Dudley ....... 415

Appendix
A Selection of Identified Ecological Research Needs
Relating to Forest Restoration ................................ 424

Index ......................................................... 427


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