Tissue, cell and organ engineering (Weinheim, 2006). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаTissue, cell and organ engineering / ed. by Ch.S.S.R.Kumar. - Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2006. - xxi, 519 p.: ill. – (Nanotechnologies for the life sciences; vol.9). - Incl. bibl. ref. – Ind.: p.506-519. – Пер. загл. Инженерия тканей, клеток и органов. – ISBN 978-3-527-31389-3
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ XV
List of Authors ............................................... XIX

1    Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering: The Scaffold
     Based Approach ............................................. 1
     Lakshmi S. Nair, Subhabrata Bhattacharyya, and Cato
     T. Laurencin
1.1  Overview ................................................... 1
1.2  Introduction ............................................... 1
1.3  The Importance of Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering .......... 4
1.4  Structure and Functions of Natural Extracellular Matrix ... 12
1.5  Applications of Nanotechnology in Developing Scaffolds
     for Tissue Engineering .................................... 21
     1.5.1  Polymeric Nanofiber Scaffolds ...................... 23
1.6  Cell Behavior Towards Nano-based Matrices ................. 39
1.7  Applications of Nano-based Matrices as Scaffolds for
     Tissue Engineering ........................................ 43
     1.7.1  Stem Cell Adhesion and Differentiation ............. 43
     1.7.2  Neural Tissue Engineering .......................... 47
     1.7.3  Cardiac and Blood Vessel Tissue Engineering ........ 49
     1.7.4  Bone, Ligament and Cartilage Tissue Engineering .... 54
1.8  Conclusions ............................................... 55
     References ................................................ 56

2    Polymeric Nanofibers in Tissue Engineering ................ 66
     Seow Hoon Saw, Karen Wang, Thomas Yong, and Seeram
     Ramakrishna
2.1  Overview .................................................. 66
2.2  Introduction .............................................. 67
     2.2.1  History of Tissue Engineering and Nanofibers ....... 67
2.3  Classification of Nanofibers .............................. 69
     2.3.1  Synthetic Polymers ................................. 69
     2.3.2  Biopolymers ........................................ 69
     2.3.3  Copolymers ......................................... 70
     2.3.4  Composite Polymers ................................. 70
2.4  Nanofiber Fabrication ..................................... 70
     2.4.1  Drawing ............................................ 71
     2.4.2  Template Synthesis ................................. 71
     2.4.3  Phase Separation ................................... 72
     2.4.4  Self-assembly ...................................... 73
     2.4.5  Electrospinning .................................... 73
2.5  Degradation and Absorption Kinetics of Nanofiber
     Scaffolds Compared with Conventional Scaffolds ............ 74
2.6  Advantages and Disadvantages of Nanofiber Scaffolds
     Compared with Other Conventional Scaffolds ................ 76
2.7  Biocompatibility of Nano-structured Tissue Engineered
     Implants .................................................. 82
2.8  Applications of Polymeric Nanofibers in Tissue
     Engineering ............................................... 87
     2.8.1  Ophthalmology ...................................... 89
     2.8.2  Liver .............................................. 93
     2.8.3  Nerve .............................................. 93
     2.8.4  Skin ............................................... 99
     2.8.5  Bone and Cartilage ................................ 102
     2.8.6  Heart and Vascular Grafts ......................... 105
     2.8.7  Stem Cells ........................................ 109
2.9  Innovations in Nanofiber Scaffolds ....................... 111
2.10 Conclusion ............................................... 115
     References ............................................... 116

3    Electrospinning Technology for Nanofibrous Scaffolds in
     Tissue Engineering ....................................... 135
     Wan-Ju Li, Rabie M. Shanti, and Rocky S. Juan
3.1  Introduction ............................................. 135
3.2  Nanofibrous Scaffolds .................................... 138
     3.2.1  Fabrication Methods for Nanofibrous Scaffolds ..... 138
     3.2.2  The Electrospinning Process ....................... 140
     3.2.3  Properties of Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds ... 144
3.3  Current Development of Electrospun Nanofibrous
     Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering .......................... 146
     3.3.1  Evidence Supporting the Use of Nanofibrous
            Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering ................... 146
     3.3.2  Biomaterials Electrospun into Nanofibrous
            Scaffolds ......................................... 151
     3.3.3  Engineered Tissues using Electrospun Nanofibrous
            Scaffolds ......................................... 269
3.4  Current Challenges and Future Directions ................. 176
3.5  Conclusion ............................................... 177
     References ............................................... 177

4    Nanofibrous Scaffolds and their Biological Effects ....... 188
     Laura A. Smith, Jonathan A. Beck, and Peter X. Ma
4.1  Overview ................................................. 188
4.2  Introduction ............................................. 188
4.3  Methods of Formation ..................................... 190
     4.3.1  Electrospinning ................................... 190
     4.3.2  Self-assembly ..................................... 193
     4.3.3  Phase Separation .................................. 194
4.4  Nanofibrous Composite Scaffolds .......................... 298
     4.4.1  Inorganic Composites .............................. 199
     4.4.2  Surface Modification .............................. 200
     4.4.3  Factor Delivery Scaffolds ......................... 201
4.5  Biological Effects of Nanofibers ......................... 202
     4.5.1  Attachment ........................................ 202
     4.5.2  Proliferation ..................................... 203
     4.5.3  Differentiation ................................... 203
     4.5.4  Migration ......................................... 204
4.6  Tissue Formation ......................................... 205
     4.6.1  Connective Tissue ................................. 205
     4.6.2  Neural Tissue ..................................... 207
     4.6.3  Cardiovascular Tissue ............................. 208
     4.6.4  Liver Tissue ...................................... 208
4.7  Conclusion ............................................... 209
     References ............................................... 210

5    Nanophase Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering ............ 216
     Ramalingam Murugan and Seeram Ramakrishna
5.1  Introduction: Problems with Current Therapies ............ 226
5.2  Tissue Engineering: A Potential Solution ................. 229
5.3  Stem Cells: The Essentials ............................... 220
5.4  Nanobiomaterials: A New Generation Scaffolding Material .. 223
     5.4.1  Characteristics of Scaffold ....................... 225
     5.4.2  Types of Scaffolding Materials .................... 227
5.5  Nanofibrous Scaffold Processing: Current Scenarios ....... 237
     5.5.1  Self-assembly ..................................... 237
     5.5.2  Phase Separation .................................. 239
     5.5.3  Electrospinning - A New Approach .................. 240
5.6  Cell-Matrix (Scaffold) Interactions ...................... 244
     5.6.1  Cell-Ceramic Scaffold Interactions ................ 244
     5.6.2  Cell-Polymer Scaffold Interactions ................ 247
5.7  Concluding Remarks ....................................... 248
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 249
     Abbreviations ............................................ 249
     Glossary ................................................. 250
     References ............................................... 252

6    Orthopedic Tissue Engineering Using Nanomaterials ........ 257
     Michiko Sato and Thomas J. Webster
6.1  Preface .................................................. 257
6.2  Introduction: Problems with Current Implants ............. 258
6.3  A Potential Solution: Nanotechnology ..................... 259
     6.3.1  Current Research Efforts to Improve Implant
            Performance Targeted the Nanoscale ................ 260
     6.3.2  In Vivo Compared with In Vitro Studies ............ 276
6.4  Considerations and Future Directions ..................... 278
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 279
     References ............................................... 279

7    Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals as Bone Tissue Substitute .... 283
     Norberto Roveri and Barbara Palazzo
7.1  Overview ................................................. 283
7.2  Introduction ............................................. 284
7.3  Biogenic Hydroxyapatite: Bone and Teeth .................. 284
7.4  Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite: Porous and Substituted
     Apatites ................................................. 288
7.5  Biologically Inspired Hydroxyapatite: HA-Collagen
     Composites and Coatings .................................. 292
7.6  Functionalized Hydroxyapatite: HA Nanocrystals -
     Bioactive Molecules ...................................... 296
7.7  Conclusion and Future Challenges 301 Acknowledgments ..... 301
     References ............................................... 302

8    Magnetic Nanoparticles for Tissue Engineering ............ 308
     Akira Ito and Hiroyuki Honda
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 308
8.2  Mesenchymal Stem Cell Isolation and Expansion ............ 310
     8.2.1  MSC Expansion using MCLs .......................... 320
     8.2.2  MSC Isolation and Expansion using AMLs ............ 323
8.3  Mag-seeding .............................................. 326
8.4  Construction of 3D Tissue-like Structure ................. 328
     8.4.1  Cell Sheet Engineering using RGD-MCLs ............. 328
     8.4.2  Construction of a Keratinocyte Sheet using MCLs ... 322
     8.4.3  Delivery of Mag-tissue Engineered RPE Sheet ....... 323
     8.4.4  Construction of a Liver-like Structure using
            MCLs .............................................. 326
     8.4.5  Construction of Tubular Structures using MCLs ..... 328
8.5  Conclusion ............................................... 330
     References ............................................... 331

9    Applications and Implications of Single-walled Carbon
     Nanotubes in Tissue Engineering .......................... 338
     Peter S. McFetridge and Matthias U. Nollert
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 338
9.2  Electromagnetic Fields for Tissue Regeneration ........... 339
9.3  Tissue Engineering ....................................... 340
9.4  SWNT Preparation: Purification and Functionalization ..... 342
9.5  Specific Applications of Carbon Nanotubes in Tissue
     Engineering .............................................. 352
9.6  Conclusions .............................................. 355
     References ............................................... 355

10   Nanoparticles for Ceil Engineering - A Radical Concept ... 361
     Beverly A. Rzigalinski, Igor Danelisen, Elizabeth
     T. Strawn, Courtney A. Cohen, and Chengya Liang
10.1 Introduction and Overview ................................ 361
10.2 Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress ....................... 362
     10.2.1 Sources of Intracellular Free Radicals ............ 362
     10.2.2 Oxidative Stress .................................. 364
     10.2.3 Oxidative Stress and Disease ...................... 365
10.3 A Nanotechnological Approach to Oxidative Stress ......... 366
     10.3.1  Rare Earth Oxide Nanoparticles - Cerium .......... 367
10.4 Nano-pharmacology ........................................ 374
     10.4.1 Absorption ........................................ 375
     10.4.2 Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion ........... 377
10.5 Nanoparticle Antioxidants and Treatment of Disease ....... 377
10.6 Toxicology ............................................... 379
10.7 Summary .................................................. 380
     References ............................................... 380

11   Nanoparticles and Nanowires for Cellular Engineering ..... 388
     Jessica O. Winter
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 388
11.2 Biological Opportunities at the Nanoscale ................ 389
     11.2.1 Nanostructures and Cells .......................... 389
     11.2.2 Nanoparticle and Nanowire Synthesis for
            Biological Systems ................................ 390
     11.2.3 Surface Passivation Strategies .................... 394
     11.2.4 Bioconjugation .................................... 395
     11.2.5 Toxicity (see also Volume 5 of this Series) ....... 399
11.3 Nanostructures to Modify Cell Adhesion and Migration ..... 400
     11.3.1 Cell Adhesion at the Nanoscale .................... 401
     11.3.2 Cell Adhesion and Nanoscale Physical Topography ... 402
     11.3.3 Cell Adhesion and Nanoscale Chemical Patterns ..... 405
     11.3.1 Cytoskeletal Manipulation ......................... 406
     11.3.5 Future Applications of Nanostructures for Cell
            Adhesion and Migration ............................ 407
11.4 Nanostructure Cellular Entry ............................. 411
     11.4.1 Biology of Molecular Delivery ..................... 412
     11.4.2 Nanostructure Endocytotic Delivery ................ 412
     11.4.3 Other Methods of Cellular Entry ................... 415
     11.4.4 Nanoparticle Intracellular Sensing ................ 416
     11.4.5 Future Directions ................................. 419
11.5 Intracellular Transport of Nanostructures ................ 421
     11.5.1 Biology of Intracellular Transport ................ 422
     11.5.2 Actin-based Nanostructure Transport ............... 423
     11.5.3 Microtubule-based Nanostructure Transport ......... 424
     11.5.4 Future Directions ................................. 424
11.6 Biomolecule Delivery Using Nanostructures ................ 425
     11.6.1 Biology of Controlled Delivery .................... 425
     11.6.2 Drag Delivery ..................................... 426
     11.6.3 Gene Therapy ...................................... 432
     11.6.4 Future Directions ................................. 434
11.7 Protein Manipulation ..................................... 437
     11.7.1 Biology of Protein Manipulation ................... 438
     11.7.2 Manipulation of Free Proteins: Enzymes ............ 438
     11.7.3 Manipulation of Bound Proteins: Receptors and
            Ion Channels ...................................... 439
     11.7.4 Future Directions ................................. 440
11.8 Summary and Conclusions .................................. 441
     11.8.1 Summary ........................................... 441
     11.8.2 Conclusions ....................................... 443
     References ............................................... 444

12   Nanoengineering of Biomaterial Surfaces .................. 461
     Ashwath Jayagopal and Venkatram Prasad Shastri
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 461
12.2 Conventional Photolithography ............................ 462
12.3 Electron-beam Lithography ................................ 466
12.4 Soft Lithography ......................................... 468
12.5 Polymer-demixed Nanotopographies ......................... 472
12.6 Star-shaped and other Novel Polymer Structures ........... 474
12.7 Vapor Deposition ......................................... 476
12.8 Self-assembly ............................................ 479
12.9 Particle Blasting ........................................ 482
12.10 Ion Beam and Plasma-guided Surface Engineering .......... 483
12.11 Sol-Gel Technology ...................................... 486
12.12 Nanolithography ......................................... 487
12.13 Laser-guided Strategies ................................. 489
12.14 Rapid Prototyping Techniques ............................ 492
12.15 Conclusions ............................................. 496

Acknowledgments ............................................... 496
References .................................................... 497
Index ......................................................... 506


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