Petrophysics: fundamentals of the petrophysics of oil and gas reservoirs (Hoboken; Scrivener, 2012). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаPetrophysics: fundamentals of the petrophysics of oil and gas reservoirs / L.Buryakovsky et al. – Hoboken; Scrivener: Wiley, 2012. – xix, 374 p.: ill. – Bibliogr.: p.349-368. – Sub. ind.: p.369-374. - Other titles: Fundamentals of the petrophysics of oil and gas reservoirs.. – Пер. загл.: Петрофизика: основы петрофизики резервуаров нефти и газа. – ISBN 978-1-118-34447-7
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ xi
List of Contributors ......................................... xvii
Acknowledgement ............................................... xix

1  Introduction ................................................. 1
   1.1  Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs .............. 1
        1.1.1  Geographical and Geological Background of the
               South Caspian Basin .............................. 5
        1.1.2  Sedimentary Features of Productive Horizons in
               the South Caspian Basin .......................... 9
        1.1.3  Depositional Environment of Productive Series,
               Azerbaijan ...................................... 13
   1.2  Reservoir Lithologies .................................. 16
        1.2.1  Clastic Rocks ................................... 16
        1.2.2  Pore Throat Distribution in Carbonate Rocks ..... 24
        1.2.3  Carbonate Rocks ................................. 35
        1.2.4  Carbonate versus Sandstone Reservoirs ........... 47
        1.2.5  Volcanic/Igneous Rocks .......................... 47
        1.2.6  Classification of Hydrocarbon Accumulations
               Based on the Type of Traps ...................... 52
2  Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs .................. 57
   2.1  Petrophysical Parameters ............................... 57
   2.2  Porosity, Void Ratio, and Density ...................... 57
        2.2.1  Quantitative Evaluation of Porosity in
               Argillaceous Sediments .......................... 63
   2.3  Permeability ........................................... 66
        2.3.1  Porosity/Permeability Relationship .............. 73
   2.4  Specific Surface Area .................................. 79
        2.4.1  Derivation of Theoretical Equation Relating
               Porosity, Permeability, and Surface Area ........ 79
        2.4.2  Relationship Between Specific Surface Area
               (Area Per Unit of Pore Volume) and
               Permeability of Carbonate Rocks ................. 85
        2.4.3  Relationship Between Specific Surface Area and
               Residual Water Saturation of Carbonate Rocks .... 85
   2.5  Interrelationship Among Prorosity, Permeability, and
        Specific Surface Area .................................. 86
        2.5.1  Vuktyl'skiy Gas-Condensate Field, Russia ........ 88
        2.5.2  Central Asia .................................... 88
        2.5.3  Kuybyshev, Along-Volga Region, Russia ........... 89
        2.5.4  Orenburg Field, Russia .......................... 90
   2.6  Wettability - Capillarity .............................. 98
        2.6.1  Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle ........... 98
        2.6.2  Capillary Pressure Curves ...................... 107
        2.6.3  Compressibility ................................ 108
   2.7  Elastic Properties .................................... 118
        2.7.1  Classification of Stresses ..................... 119
   2.8  Acoustic Properties ................................... 123
        2.8.1  Borehole Seismic and Well Logging Methods ...... 125
        2.8.2  Practical Use of Acoustic Properties of Rocks .. 126
   2.9  Electrical Resistivity ................................ 128
        2.9.1  Spontaneous Potential .......................... 131
   2.10  Radioactivity ........................................ 137
        2.10.1 Atomic Structure ............................... 138
        2.10.2 Radioactivity Logging Applications ............. 145
   2.11 Chemistry of Waters in Shales versus those in
        Sandstones ............................................ 149
3  Seismic Parameters ......................................... 151
   3.1  Introduction .......................................... 151
   3.2  Elastic Properties .................................... 152
   3.3  Velocity and Rock Properties .......................... 154
   3.4  Pore Pressure ......................................... 159
   3.5  Seismic Anisotropy .................................... 164
        3.5.1  Effective Medium Theories ...................... 168
        3.5.2  The Effect of Pore Space and Pore Geometry on
               Moduli ......................................... 174
        3.5.3  Gassmann's Equations ........................... 176
        3.5.4  Bounding Average Method ........................ 178
        3.5.5  Kuster and Toksöz Theory ....................... 179

A  Historical Review .......................................... 183
   A.l  Introduction .......................................... 183
   A.2  Initial Phases of Development ......................... 183
   A.3  Gus Archie's Equations and the Dawn of Quantitative
        Petrophysics .......................................... 195
   A.4  Air-Filled Boreholes, Oil-Based Muds, and Induction
        Logs .................................................. 197
   A.5  World War II Technology Legacy ........................ 198
   A.6  Cased-Hole Correlation and Natural Gamma Ray Logs ..... 198
   A.7  Seismic Velocities, Acoustic Logs, and Jessie Wylie's
        Time Average Equation ................................. 199
   A.8  The Manhattan Project and Nuclear Logging ............. 201
   A.9  Space Program Technology Legacy ....................... 201
   A.10 SANDIA Geothermal Log Program and Hardened
        Microcircuits ......................................... 202
   A.11 Extended-Reach Directional Drilling, Horizontal
        Wells, Deep Water, Ultra Deep Wells and Measurements
        While Drilling ........................................ 203
   A.12 Data Acquisition, Data Recording, and Data
        Transmission Developments ............................. 203
   A.13 Log Analysis Developments ............................. 206
   A.14 Formation True Resistivity, Rt, Flushed Zone
        Resistivity, Rxo, Water Saturation, Sw, and Flushed
        Zone Saturation, Sxo .................................. 210
   A.15 Rat Holes, Bed Resolution, Depth of Investigation,
        and Laterolog Developments ............................ 212
   A.16 Air, Mist and Oil-Based Muds: Induction Log
        Developments .......................................... 220
   A.17 Departure Curves, Tornado Charts and Inversion ........ 225
   A.18 Acoustic Log - The Accidental Porosity Tool ........... 228
   A.19 Neutron Log - The First True Porosity Tool ............ 233
   A.20 Density Log - The Porosity Tool that almost did not
        Make It ............................................... 237
   A.21 Pulsed Neutron Capture Logs ........................... ---
   The All Purpose Tool ....................................... 242
   A.22 Through Casing Resistivity Measurements ............... ---
   Well Logging's Holy Grail .................................. 245
   A.23 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Log - Patience and
        Persistence ........................................... 248
   A.24 Sxo Tool Developments ................................. 252
   A.25 Dielectric Tool Developments .......................... 253
   A.26 Dipmeters to Borehole Imaging ......................... 256
   A.27 Wireline Formation Testers ............................ 264
   A.28 Shaly Sands ........................................... 266
   A.29 Golden Era and Black Period of Petrophysics ........... 267
   A.30 The Future ............................................ 269
   Bibliography ............................................... 271
   Web Pages .................................................. 278

B  Mechanics of Fluid Flow .................................... 279
   B.1  Fundamental Equation of Fluid Statics ................. 279
   B.2  Buoyancy .............................................. 280
   B.3  General Energy Equation ............................... 281
   B.4  Derivation of Formula for Flow Through Orifice Meter .. 282
   B.5  Compressible Flow Formula ............................. 284
   B.6  Farshad's Surface Roughness Values and Relative-
        Roughness Equations ................................... 290
   B.7  Flow Through Fractures ................................ 293
   B.8  Permeability of a Fracture-Matrix System .............. 294
   B.9  Fluid Flow in Deformable Rock Fractures ............... 294
   B.10 Electrokinetic Flow ................................... 299
   References ................................................. 301

C  Glossary ................................................... 303

References .................................................... 347
Bibliography .................................................. 349
Subject Index ................................................. 369


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