Microfluidic cell culture systems (Oxford; Waltham, 2013). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаMicrofluidic cell culture systems / eds.: C.Bettinger, J.T.Borenstein, S.L.Tao - Oxford; Waltham: William Andrew, 2013. - (Micro & nano technologies series). - Other titles: Microfluidic cell culture systems and applications. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.423-433. - Пер. загл.: Системы микрофлюидных клеточных культур. - ISBN 978-1-4377-3459-1
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ...................................................... xiii

PART 1 MATERIALS AND FABRICATION METHODS

CHAPTER 1  Microfluidic Cell Culture Platforms with
Embedded Nanoscale Features ..................................... 3
1.1  Introduction ............................................... 3
1.2  Engineering of nanoscale features .......................... 4
     1.2.1  Fabrication of irregular nanoscale features ......... 5
     1.2.2  Fabrication of regular nanoscale features ........... 6
1.3  Assembly of PDMS-based microfluidic platforms .............. 9
     1.3.1  Reversible assembly ................................. 9
     1.3.2  Irreversible assembly ............................... 9
     1.3.3  Microtransfer assembly ............................. 10
1.4  Microfluidic platforms with embedded nanoscale features
     for cell studies .......................................... 12
     1.4.1  Cancer cell detection .............................. 12
     1.4.2  Stem cell regulation ............................... 14
1.5  Summary ................................................... 19
     Acknowledgment ............................................ 20
     References ................................................ 20

CHAPTER 2  Microvascular Networks for Tissue Engineering ....... 27
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 27
2.2  Characteristics of branched vascular networks ............. 28
2.3  Fabrication of 2-D microvascular networks ................. 28
2.4  Fabrication of 3-D microvascular networks ................. 32
2.5  MicroChannel topologies ................................... 37
2.6  Engineering meets biology: toward tissue engineering
     applications .............................................. 38
2.7  Outlook and future challenges ............................. 42
     Acknowledgments ........................................... 47
     References ................................................ 47

CHAPTER 3 Microfluidics for Engineering 3D Tissues
and Cellular Microenvironments ................................. 53
3.1  Introduction .............................................. 53
3.2  Fabricating 3D tissue scaffolds using microfluidics ....... 54
     3.2.1  Microfluidic casting for engineering the
            microstructure of natural ECM scaffolds ............ 54
     3.2.2  Fabrication of composite photopolymerizable
            hydrogel microstructures using microfluidics ....... 56
3.3  Dynamic 3D cell cultures within PDMS microfluidic
     devices ................................................... 59
3.4  Hydrogel-based microfluidic culture devices and
     tissue scaffolds .......................................... 61
     3.4.1  Assembly of natural ECM multiphase tissues using
            microfluidics ...................................... 62
     3.4.2  Optimization of collagen-fiber interfacing for
            directing capillary morphogenesis within
            microfabricated tissue constructs .................. 65
3.5  Conclusion and future directions .......................... 75
     References ................................................ 76

CHAPTER 4  Fabrication of Advanced Microcontainer Arrays
for Perfused 3D Cell Culture in Microfluidic Bioreactors ....... 81
4.1  Introduction .............................................. 81
4.2  Micromolding of cell container arrays ..................... 83
     4.2.1  Micro injection molding ............................ 84
     4.2.2  Hot embossing ...................................... 86
     4.2.3  Microscale thermoforming ........................... 86
4.3  Introducing porosity ...................................... 89
     4.3.1  Laser micromachining ............................... 90
     4.3.2  Solvent vapor bonding of track-etched membranes .... 91
     4.3.3  Combination of thermoforming and ion track
            technology ......................................... 92
4.4  Functionalization of cell container arrays ................ 94
     4.4.1  Protein coatings ................................... 94
     4.4.2  SMART processes for overlaid patterned surface
            and bulk modification of thermoformed cell
            container arrays ................................... 94
4.5  Integration into microfluidic bioreactors ................. 99
4.6  Conclusion ............................................... 100
     References ............................................... 100

CHAPTER 5  Mechanobiological Approaches for the Control
of Cell Motility .............................................. 105
5.1  Introduction ............................................. 105
5.2  Passive control of cell motility ......................... 107
     5.2.1  Rome platform ..................................... 107
     5.2.2  Materials and methods ............................. 110
     5.2.3  Results and discussion ............................ 115
5.3  Active control of cell motility .......................... 123
     5.3.1  Biological breadboard ............................. 123
     5.3.2  Materials and methods ............................. 124
     5.3.3  Results and discussion ............................ 127
     References ............................................... 133

CHAPTER 6  Transport Models for Three-Dimensional Cell
Culture Systems ............................................... 111
6.1  Introduction ............................................. 137
     6.1.1 Critical design criteria for in vitro models ....... 137
6.2  Fluid flow in cell culture systems ....................... 139
     6.2.1  Equations of fluid motion ......................... 139
     6.2.2  Boundary conditions ............................... 141
6.3  The theory of mass transport ............................. 142
     6.3.1  Equation of mass transport ........................ 142
     6.3.2  Boundary conditions ............................... 142
6.4  Binding kinetics ......................................... 143
     6.4.1  Irreversible, first-order single-molecule
            reactions ......................................... 143
     6.4.2  Reversible, first-order single-molecule
            reactions ......................................... 144
     6.4.3  Reversible, first-order bimolecular reactions ..... 144
     6.4.4  Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis-Menten kinetics) ....... 145
6.5  Nondimensionalization .................................... 146
6.6  Order of magnitude analysis .............................. 149
6.7  Bulk parameter models .................................... 151
6.8  Examples ................................................. 155
     6.8.1  Ligand-receptor binding model ..................... 156
     6.8.2  Mass transport in a membrane bilayer device ....... 158
6.9  Microfluidic approaches for flow and transport control ... 164
     6.9.1  Membrane bilayer .................................. 164
     6.9.2  Valves ............................................ 166
     6.9.3  Grooves ........................................... 168
6.10 Conclusion ............................................... 168
     Appendix A Navier - Stokes equations in other
     coordinate systems ....................................... 168
     A.l Navier - Stokes equations in radial coordinates ...... 168
     A.2 Navier - Stokes equations in polar coordinates ....... 169
     Appendix В Transport equation in other coordinate
     systems .................................................. 170
     References ............................................... 171

PART 2 TISSUE ENGINEERING STRATEGIES

CHAPTER 7  Microfluidic Systems for Controlling Stem Cells
Microenvironments ............................................. 175
7.1  Introduction ............................................. 175
7.2  Microfluidic elements for cell culture ................... 177
     7.2.1  Cell sorting and filtering ........................ 177
     7.2.2  Cell isolation and storage ........................ 179
     7.2.3  Cell lysis ........................................ 182
     7.2.4  Surface patterning ................................ 182
     7.2.1  Microfluidic mixing, concentration gradients,
            and combinatorial solutions ....................... 183
     7.2.6  On-chip cell culture .............................. 185
     7.2.7  Cell analysis on-chip ............................. 186
7.3  Controlling cellular microenvironments ................... 186
     7.3.1  Soluble factors and chemical stimuli .............. 188
     7.3.2  Mechanical stimuli ................................ 189
     7.3.3  Electric stimuli .................................. 191
     7.3.4  Cell-cell contact and coculture ................... 192
     7.3.5  Development and mimicking of ECMs ................. 193
7.4  Challenges and outlook ................................... 194
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 195
     References ............................................... 195

CHAPTER 8  Vascularization of Microfluidic Hydrogels .......... 205
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 205
8.2  Design criteria for microfluidic scaffolds ............... 205
8.3  Forming and vascularizing microfluidic gels .............. 206
     8.3.1  Forming microfluidic gels ......................... 206
     8.3.2  Vascularizing gels ................................ 209
8.4  Design considerations .................................... 213
     8.4.1  Perfusion ......................................... 213
     8.4.2  Drainage .......................................... 215
8.5  Design algorithm ......................................... 217
8.6  Summary .................................................. 218
     8.6.1 Future directions .................................. 219
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 219
     References ............................................... 220

CHAPTER 9  Microfluidic Vascular Networks for Engineered
Tissues ....................................................... 223
9.1  Introduction ............................................. 223
9.2  3D Microfluidics fabrication techniques .................. 224
     9.2.1  Microfabrication of vasculature ................... 225
     9.2.2  SFF techniques .................................... 227
     9.2.3  Nontraditional techniques ......................... 230
     9.2.4  3D fabrication issues ............................. 232
9.3  Materials for microfluidic vasculature ................... 232
     9.3.1  Rigid materials ................................... 232
     9.3.2  Elastomers ........................................ 234
     9.3.3  Hydrogels ......................................... 236
     9.3.4  Materials issues .................................. 240
9.4  Conclusion ............................................... 240
     References ............................................... 241

CHAPTER 10 Microfluidic Approaches Toward Pulmonary
Tissue Constructs ............................................. 247
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 247
10.2 Lung design .............................................. 248
10.3 Engineering small airways ................................ 251
     10.3.1 Overview .......................................... 251
     10.3.2 Design parameters for small airways ............... 251
     10.3.3 Microengineered airway models ..................... 258
     10.3.4 Summary ........................................... 264
10.4 Engineering alveolar structures .......................... 265
     10.4.1 Overview .......................................... 265
     10.4.2 Design parameters for the air - blood barrier ..... 266
     10.4.3 Conventional alveolar models ...................... 268
     10.4.4 Microfluidic alveolar models ...................... 268
     10.4.5 Summary ........................................... 270
10.5 Conclusions .............................................. 272
     References ............................................... 272

CHAPTER 11 Microfabricated Kidney Tissue Models ............... 279
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 279
11.2 Significance of microfabricated kidney tissue models ..... 280
11.3 Kidney structure and function relationship ............... 280
11.4 Traditional kidney tissue models ......................... 283
11.5 Crucial signaling elements for kidney tissue models ...... 284
     11.5.1 Signaling elements delivered via cell substrate ... 285
     11.5.2 Signaling elements delivered via fluid flow ....... 287
11.6 Review of current microfabricated kidney tissue models ... 289
     11.6.1 Microfabricated kidney models with controlled
            FSS ............................................... 289
     11.6.2 Microfabricated kidney models with porous
            membranes and scaffolds ........................... 292
     11.6.3 Microfabricated kidney models with user-defined
            substrate topography .............................. 294
11.7 Summary and future direction ............................. 296
     References ............................................... 297

CHAPTER 12 Microfluidic Cell Culture Techniques ............... 303
12.1 Fundamentals of microscale cell culture .................. 303
     12.1.1 Cell culture ...................................... 303
     12.1.2 Difference between macro- and microscale cell
            culture ........................................... 303
     12.1.3 Microscale cell culture considerations ............ 304
12.2 Microfluidic cell culture systems ........................ 304
     12.2.1 Cell seeding ...................................... 305
     12.2.2 Cell culture maintenance .......................... 306
     12.2.3 Cell passaging .................................... 309
     12.2.4 Cell concentration and dilution ................... 310
12.3 Microenvironmental stimuli ............................... 311
     12.3.1 Biochemical stimuli ............................... 312
     12.3.2 Physical stimuli .................................. 312
     12.3.3 Compartmentalization .............................. 314
12.4 Microfluidic cell and tissue culture systems for drug
     discovery and studies in physiology ...................... 315
12.5 Conclusions .............................................. 316
     References ............................................... 316

PART 3  IN VITRO MODELS

CHAPTER 13 Functionalized Microfluidic Devices for
Separation of Cell Phenotypes ................................. 325
13.1 Introduction ............................................. 325
13.2 Negative selection for enrichment of target cells ........ 326
13.3 Positive selection of target cells for diagnostic
     purposes ................................................. 328
13.4 Capture and release of target cells from positive
     selection for tissue engineering purposes ................ 334
13.5 Effect of shear on changes of receptor expression in
     cells .................................................... 335
13.6 Conclusions .............................................. 337
     References ............................................... 337

CHAPTER 14 Microfluidic Hepatotoxicity Platform ............... 341
14.1 Introduction ............................................. 341
14.2 Liver tissue microenvironment ............................ 342
     14.2.1 Liver acinus ...................................... 342
     14.2.2 Sinusoid properties ............................... 343
     14.2.3 Cell-cell interactions ............................ 343
     14.2.4 Cell—matrix interactions .......................... 343
14.3 Microfluidic liver design ................................ 343
     14.3.1 Microfabrication .................................. 344
     14.3.2 Single unit layout ................................ 345
     14.3.3 Perfusion barriers ................................ 346
     14.3.4 Air channels ...................................... 347
     14.3.5 Cell loading ...................................... 347
     14.3.6 Gravity perfusion ................................. 348
     14.3.7 Multiplexed plate ................................. 348
     14.3.8 Automated system .................................. 348
     14.3.9 Operation ......................................... 349
14.4 Long-term hepatocyte culture ............................. 350
     14.4.1 Comparison with standard culture methods .......... 350
     14.4.2 Morphology ........................................ 351
     14.4.4 Viability and CYP450 activity ..................... 351
     14.4.4 Gene expression ................................... 352
     14.4.5 Albumin/urea production ........................... 353
     14.4.6 Hepatocyte sources ................................ 353
14.5 Summary .................................................. 354
     Acknowledgments .......................................... 354
     References ............................................... 354

CHAPTER 15 Live Cell Analysis Under Shear Flow ................ 357
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 357
15.2 Flow control and well plate microfluidics ................ 358
     15.2.1 Principles of well plate microfluidics ............ 358
     15.2.2 WPM device fabrication ............................ 360
     15.2.3 WPM device modeling and characterization .......... 360
15.3 Cell biology applications ................................ 362
     15.3.1 In vitro cells under shear ........................ 362
     15.3.2 Stem cell differentiation ......................... 362
     15.3.3 Platelet biology: adhesion, aggregation, and
            thrombus formation ................................ 364
     15.3.4 Rolling and static cell adhesion .................. 372
15.4 Microbiology applications ................................ 373
     15.4.1 Bacterial adhesion and biofilm development ........ 373
     15.4.2 Biofilm compound screening ........................ 378
15.5 Summary .................................................. 380
     References ............................................... 380

CHAPTER 16 Microfluidic Platforms for Evaluating
Angiogenesis and Vasculogenesis ............................... 385
16.1 Introduction ............................................. 385
16.2 Current methods in microfluidics ......................... 387
     16.2.1 Mimicking angiogenesis in microfluidics ........... 388
     16.2.2 Inducing angiogenesis ............................. 391
     16.2.3 Coculture methods ................................. 393
     16.2.4 Maturation/stabilization of blood vessels ......... 394
     16.2.5 Quantification .................................... 395
     16.2.6 Pros and cons of a microfluidic approach .......... 396
16.3 Conclusion and future directions ......................... 398
     References ............................................... 398

CHAPTER 17 Cardiovascular Disease/Discovery Models ............ 405
17.1 Introduction ............................................. 405
17.2 Cell culture in cellix's Vena8 Endothelial +
     microfluidic biochips .................................... 408
     17.2.1 Validation of Vena8 Endothelial + biochip model) .. 408
17.3 Microfluidic cell culture biochip model for
     atherosclerosis .......................................... 411
     17.3.1 Monocyte (THP-1) adhesion to HUVECs in
     Cellix's Vena8 Endothelial + microfluidic biochips ....... 411
17.4 Conclusion ............................................... 419
     References ............................................... 419

Index ......................................................... 423


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