Dandekar A.Y. Petroleum reservoir rock and fluid properties (Boca Raton, 2013). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаDandekar A.Y. Petroleum reservoir rock and fluid properties. - 2nd ed. - Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2013. - xxv, 518 p.: ill. - (Chemical/ Petroleum engineering). - Incl. bibl. ref. - Auth. ind.: p.503-508. - Sub. ind.: p.509-518. - Пер. загл.: Резервуары нефти и флюидные свойства. - ISBN 978-1-4398-7636-7
 

Место хранения: 02 | Отделение ГПНТБ СО РАН | Новосибирск

Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ........................................................ ix
Acknowledgments ............................................. xxiii
Author ........................................................ xxv

Chapter 1  Introduction ......................................... 1
1.1  Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluids ........................ 1
1.2  Formation of Petroleum Reservoirs .......................... 1
1.3  Typical Characteristics of Petroleum Reservoirs ............ 2
1.4  Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources ....................... 4
1.5  Significance of Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid
     Properties ................................................. 5
     References ................................................. 8

Chapter 2  Preamble to Petroleum Reservoir Rock Properties ..... 11
2.1  Introduction .............................................. 11
2.2  Coring Methods ............................................ 12
     2.2.1  Rotary Method ...................................... 12
     2.2.2  Sidewall Coring .................................... 12
     2.2.3  High-Pressure Coring ............................... 12
2.3  Important Issues Related to Coring Methods ................ 13
2.4  Types of Cores ............................................ 13
     2.4.1  Whole Core ......................................... 14
     2.4.2  Core Plug .......................................... 14
2.5  Allocation of Core Data for Measurement of Reservoir
     Rock Properties ........................................... 14
2.6  Handling of Reservoir Rock Core Samples ................... 14
2.7  Types of Core Tests ....................................... 16
     2.7.1  Routine or Conventional Core Analysis .............. 16
     2.7.2  Special Core Analysis .............................. 16
     References ................................................ 17

Chapter 3  Porosity ............................................ 19
3.1  Significance and Definition ............................... 19
3.2  Types of Porosities ....................................... 19
     3.2.1  Total or Absolute Porosity ......................... 21
     3.2.2  Effective Porosity ................................. 21
     3.2.3  Ineffective Porosity ............................... 22
3.3  Classification of Porosity ................................ 22
3.4  Parameters That Influence Porosity ........................ 23
3.5  Laboratory Measurement of Porosity ........................ 24
     3.5.1  Porosity Determination Using Routine Core
            Analysis ........................................... 25
            3.5.1.1  Bulk Volume Measurement ................... 25
            3.5.1.2  Pore Volume Measurement ................... 25
            3.5.1.3  Grain Volume Measurement .................. 28
3.6  Nonconventional Methods of Porosity Measurements .......... 29
3.7  Averaging of Porosity ..................................... 31
3.8  Examples of Typical Porosities ............................ 32
     Problems .................................................. 33
     References ................................................ 34

Chapter 4  Absolute Permeability ............................... 37
4.1  Significance and Definition ............................... 37
4.2  Mathematical Expression of Permeability: Darcy's Law ...... 37
4.3  Dimensional Analysis of Permeability and Definition
     of aDarcy ................................................. 40
4.4  Application of Darcy's Law to Inclined Flow and Radial
     Flow ...................................................... 41
4.5  Averaging of Permeabilities ............................... 44
     4.5.1  Parallel Flow ...................................... 44
     4.5.2  Series Flow ........................................ 46
4.6  Permeability of Fractures and Channels .................... 48
4.7  Darcy's Law in Field Units ................................ 50
4.8  Laboratory Measurement of Absolute Permeability ........... 51
     4.8.1  Measurement of Absolute Permeability Using
            Liquids ............................................ 53
     4.8.2  Measurement of Absolute Permeability Using Gases ... 55
4.9  Factors Affecting Absolute Permeability ................... 58
     4.9.1  Rock-Related Factors ............................... 58
     4.9.2  Fluid Phase-Related Factors ........................ 60
     4.9.3  Thermodynamic Factors .............................. 61
     4.9.4  Mechanical Factors ................................. 61
4.10 Porosity and Permeability Relationships ................... 63
4.11 Permeabilities of Different Types of Rocks ................ 64
     Problems .................................................. 65
     References ................................................ 66

Chapter 5  Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Reservoir
Rocks .......................................................... 69
5.1  Introduction .............................................. 69
5.2  Mechanical Properties ..................................... 70
     5.2.1  Stress ............................................. 70
     5.2.2  Strain ............................................. 71
     5.2.3  Stress-Strain Relationship ......................... 72
            5.2.3.1  Factors Affecting the Stress-Strain
                     Relationship .............................. 72
     5.2.4  Rock Strength ...................................... 73
     5.2.5  Rock Mechanic s Parameters ......................... 74
            5.2.5.1  Poisson's Ratio ........................... 74
            5.2.5.2  Young's Modulus ........................... 74
            5.2.5.3  Modulus of Rigidity ....................... 74
            5.2.5.4  Bulk Modulus .............................. 75
     5.2.6  Laboratory Measurement of Rock Strength ............ 75
            5.2.6.1  TriaxialCell .............................. 76
     5.2.7  Reservoir Rock Compressibility ..................... 78
            5.2.7.1  Empirical Correlations of Formation
                     Compressibility ........................... 80
5.3  Electrical Properties ..................................... 81
     5.3.1  Fundamental Concepts and the Archie Equation ....... 81
            5.3.1.1  Formation Factor .......................... 82
            5.3.1.2  Tortuosity ................................ 82
            5.3.1.3  Cementation Factor ........................ 82
            5.3.1.4  Resistivity Index ......................... 84
     5.3.2  Effect of Wettability on Electrical Properties ..... 85
     5.3.3  Effect of Clay on Electrical Properties ............ 88
     Problems .................................................. 89
     References ................................................ 91

Chapter 6  Fluid Saturation .................................... 93
6.1  Significance and Definition ............................... 93
6.2  Distribution of Fluid Saturation in a Petroleum
     Reservoir ................................................. 94
6.3  Definition and Mathematical Expressions for Fluid
     Saturation ................................................ 94
6.4  Reservoir Rock Samples Used for Fluid Saturation
     Determination ............................................. 96
6.5  Laboratory Measurement of Fluid Saturation ................ 97
     6.5.1  Retort Distillation ................................ 98
     6.5.2  Dean-Stark Extraction ............................. 100
6.6  Assessing the Validity of Fluid Saturation Data Measured
     on the Plug-End Trim for the Core Plug Sample ............ 102
6.7  Special Types of Fluid Saturations ....................... 103
     6.7.1  Critical Gas Saturation ........................... 104
     6.7.2  Residual Oil Saturation ........................... 104
     6.7.3  Irreducible Water Saturation ...................... 107
6.8  Saturation Averaging ..................................... 108
6.9  Factors Affecting Fluid Saturation Determination ......... 109
     6.9.1  Effect of Drilling Muds on Fluid Saturation ....... 109
            6.9.1.1  Skin Effect .............................. 1ll
     6.9.2  Effect of Fluid Expansion on Fluid Saturation ..... 112
     6.9.3  Combined Effects of Mud Filtrate Invasion and
            Fluid Expansion on Fluid Saturation ............... 113
     6.9.4  Mitigation of Mud Filtrate Invasion and Fluid
            Expansion Effects on Fluid Saturation ............. 115
            6.9.4.1  Measures That Avoid or Account for Mud
                     Filtrate Invasion ........................ 117
            6.9.4.2  Measures That Avoid or Account for
                     Fluid Expansion .......................... 119
     Problems ................................................. 122
     References ............................................... 123

Chapter 7  Interfacial Tension and Wettability ................ 125
7.1  Introduction and Fundamental Concepts .................... 125
7.2  Interfacial and Surface Tension .......................... 126
     7.2.1  Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Interfacial
            Tension and Surface Tension ....................... 128
     7.2.2  Laboratory Measurement of Interfacial Tension ..... 130
7.3  Wettability .............................................. 132
7.4  Fundamental Concepts of Wettability ...................... 133
7.5  Discussion on Practical Aspects of Wettability ........... 136
     7.5.1  Classification/Types of Wettability ............... 138
            7.5.1.1  Water Wet ................................ 138
            7.5.1.2  Oil Wet .................................. 138
            7.5.1.3  Intermediate Wet ......................... 138
            7.5.1.4  Fractional Wettability ................... 139
            7.5.1.5  Mixed Wettability ........................ 139
7.6  Measurement of Reservoir Rock Wettability ................ 139
     7.6.1  Contact Angle Measurement ......................... 140
            7.6.1.1  Effect of Pressure and Temperature
                     on Contact Angles ........................ 141
     7.6.2  Core Samples Used for Amott Test and USBM
            Methods ........................................... 142
     7.6.3  Amott Test ........................................ 143
            7.6.3.1  Modification of the Amott Test
                     (Amott-Harvey Test) ...................... 145
     7.6.4  USBM Method ....................................... 147
7.7  Factors Affecting Wettability ............................ 149
     7.7.1  Composition of the Reservoir Oil .................. 149
     7.7.2  Composition of the Brine .......................... 150
     7.7.3  Reservoir Pressure and Temperature ................ 151
     7.7.4  Depth of the Reservoir Structure .................. 151
7.8  Relationship between Wettability and Irreducible Water
     Saturation and Residual Oil Saturation ................... 152
     7.8.1  Wettability and Irreducible Water Saturation ...... 153
     7.8.2  Wettability and Residual Oil Saturation ........... 154
            7.8.2.1  Low-Salinity Waterflooding-Wettability-
                     Residual Oil Saturation .................. 156
     Problems ................................................. 157
     References ............................................... 158

Chapter 8  Capillary Pressure ................................. 163
8.1  Introduction ............................................. 163
8.2  Basic Mathematical Expression of Capillary Pressure ...... 164
8.3  The Rise of Liquid in Capillaries and the Plateau
     Equation ................................................. 165
8.4  Dependence of Capillary Pressure on Rock and Fluid
     Properties ............................................... 168
8.5  Capillary Pressure and Saturation History ................ 169
8.6  Laboratory Measurement of Capillary Pressure ............. 171
     8.6.1  Leverett's Capillary Pressure Experiments ......... 172
     8.6.2  Porous Diaphragm Method ........................... 173
     8.6.3  Mercury Injection Method .......................... 175
     8.6.4  Centrifuge Method ................................. 177
8.7  Characteristics of Capillary Pressure Curves ............. 179
     8.7.1  Saturation Scale .................................. 179
     8.7.2  Pressure Scale .................................... 180
     8.7.3  Capillary Hysteresis .............................. 180
     8.7.4  Capillary Pressure and Permeability ............... 181
8.8  Converting Laboratory Capillary Pressure Data
     to Reservoir Conditions .................................. 182
8.9  Averaging Capillary Pressure: J Function ................. 184
8.10 Calculation of Permeability from Capillary Pressure ...... 186
8.11 Effect of Wettability on Capillary Pressure .............. 189
8.12 Practical Application of Capillary Pressure .............. 191
     8.12.1 Pore Size Distribution ............................ 192
     8.12.2 Pore Throat Sorting ............................... 194
     8.12.3 Connate Water Saturation .......................... 195
     8.12.4 Zonation, Fluid Contacts, and Initial Saturation
            Distribution in a Reservoir ....................... 196
            8.12.4.1 Free Water Level ......................... 198
            8.12.4.2 Oil-Water Contact ........................ 198
            8.12.4.3 Transition Zone .......................... 199
            8.12.4.4 Oil Pay Zone or Clean Oil Zone ........... 199
            8.12.4.5 Fluid Saturation in the Gas Zone ......... 200
     Problems ................................................. 200
     References ............................................... 202

Chapter 9  Relative Permeability .............................. 205
9.1  Fundamental Concepts of Relative Permeability ............ 205
9.2  Mathematical Expressions for Relative Permeability ....... 206
9.3  Salient Features of Gas-Oil and Water-Oil Relative
     Permeability Curves ...................................... 207
     9.3.1  End-Point Fluid Saturations ....................... 208
     9.3.2  Base Permeabilities ............................... 210
     9.3.3  End-Point Permeabilities and Relative
            Permeability Curves ............................... 210
            9.3.3.1  Gas-Oil Relative Permeability Curves ..... 210
            9.3.3.2  Oil-Water Relative Permeability Curves ... 210
     9.3.4  Direction of the Relative Permeability Curves ..... 211
9.4  Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability .......... 212
     9.4.1  Flowchart for Relative Permeability Measurements .. 213
     9.4.2  Core Plug Samples Used in Relative
            Permeability Measurements ......................... 214
     9.4.3  Displacement Fluids and Test Conditions ........... 215
            9.4.3.1  Room Condition Tests ..................... 215
            9.4.3.2  Partial Reservoir Condition Tests ........ 216
            9.4.3.3  Reservoir Condition Tests ................ 216
     9.4.4  Establishment of Initial Water Saturation ......... 216
            9.4.4.1  Preserved Core Plug Samples .............. 217
            9.4.4.2  Cleaned Core Plug Samples ................ 217
     9.4.5  Determination of Base Permeability ................ 218
     9.4.6  Displacement Apparatus for Relative Permeability .. 219
     9.4.7  Steady-State Technique ............................ 220
     9.4.8  Unsteady-State Technique .......................... 223
            9.4.8.1  Buckley-Leverett to Welge to Johnson-
                     Bossler-Naumann .......................... 225
            9.4.8.2  Relative Permeabilities from the
                     Alternate Method ......................... 238
     9.4.9  Capillary End Effect .............................. 238
9.5  Determination of Relative Permeability from Capillary
     Pressure Data ............................................ 241
9.6  Factors Affecting Relative Permeability Measurements ..... 243
     9.6.1  Effect of Fluid Saturation, History of
            Saturation, and Initial Water Saturation .......... 244
     9.6.2  Effect of Wettability on Relative Permeability .... 246
     9.6.3  Effect of Rock Pore Structure ..................... 247
     9.6.4  Effect of Overburden Stress (Confining Stress) .... 248
     9.6.5  Effect of Clay Content and Movement of Fines ...... 248
     9.6.6  Effect of Temperature ............................. 249
     9.6.7  Effect of Interfacial Tension, Viscosity, and
            Flow Velocity ..................................... 249
9.7  Peculiarities of Relative Permeability Data .............. 251
9.8  Assessing the Validity of Relative Permeability Data
     and Determination of Corey Exponents ..................... 253
9.9  Significance of Relative Permeability Data ............... 255
     9.9.1  Example of Practical Application of Relative
            Permeability Data ................................. 255
9.10 Three-Phase Relative Permeability ........................ 258
     9.10.1 Representation of Three-Phase Relative
            Permeability Data ................................. 258
     9.10.2 Empirical Models for Three-Phase Relative
            Permeability ...................................... 260
     Problems ................................................. 262
     References ............................................... 266

Chapter 10 Introduction to Petroleum Reservoir Fluids ......... 269
10.1 Introduction ............................................. 269
10.2 Chemistry of Petroleum ................................... 269
     10.2.1 Paraffins or Alkanes .............................. 270
     10.2.2 Naphthenes or Cycloparaffins ...................... 272
     10.2.3 Aromatics ......................................... 272
10.3 Solid Components of Petroleum ............................ 272
     10.3.1 Gas Hydrates ...................................... 273
     10.3.2 Waxes ............................................. 273
     10.3.3 Asphaltenes ....................................... 274
     10.3.4 Diamondoids ....................................... 275
10.4 Classification of Reservoir Gases and Oils ............... 275
     10.4.1 Chemical Classification of Reservoir Oils
            or Crude Oils ..................................... 276
     10.4.2 Physical Classification of Crude Oils ............. 276
     10.4.3 Impact of Crude Oil Characteristics on Refining ... 277
10.5 Five Reservoir Fluids .................................... 277
     10.5.1 Other Unconventional Oils ......................... 278
10.6 Other Hydrocarbon Fluids of Interest ..................... 279
     10.6.1 Compressed Natural Gas ............................ 280
     10.6.2 Liquefied Natural Gas ............................. 280
     10.6.3 Liquefied Petroleum Gas ........................... 280
     10.6.4 Natural Gas Liquids ............................... 280
10.7 Formation Waters ......................................... 281
     Problems ................................................. 281
     References ............................................... 282

Chapter 11 Introduction to Phase Behavior ..................... 285
11.1 Introduction ............................................. 285
11.2 Definition of Terms Used in Phase Behavior ............... 286
     11.2.1 Phase ............................................. 286
     11.2.2 Intermolecular Forces, Pressure, and Temperature .. 286
     11.2.3 Equilibrium ....................................... 286
     11.2.1 Component and Composition ......................... 286
     11.2.5 Distinction between Gases and Liquids ............. 287
     11.2.6 Types of Physical Properties ...................... 287
     11.2.7 Phase Rule ........................................ 287
11.3 Phase Behavior of a Pure Component ....................... 288
     11.3.1 Phase Diagram of a Pure Component ................. 288
            11.3.1.1 Vapor Pressure Curve ..................... 289
            11.3.1.2 Critical Point ........................... 289
            11.3.1.3 Triple Point ............................. 289
            11.3.1.4 Melting Point Curve ...................... 289
            11.3.1.5 Sublimation-Pressure Curve ............... 290
            11.3.1.6 Conditions Outside the Pc-Tc Boundary .... 290
     11.3.2 Pressure-Volume Diagram ........................... 291
     11.3.3 Density-Temperature Behavior of a Pure Component .. 292
     11.3.4 Determination of Vapor Pressure ................... 293
11.4 Phase Behavior of Two-Component or Binary Systems ........ 294
     11.4.1 Phase Diagram of a Binary System .................. 295
            11.4.1.1 Critical Point ........................... 295
            11.4.1.2 Bubble Point and Dew Point ............... 296
            11.4.1.3 Bubble-Point and Dew-Point Curves ........ 296
            11.4.1.4 Cricondenbar and Cricondentherm .......... 296
            11.4.1.5 Retrograde Dew Point and Condensation .... 297
            11.4.1.6 Behavior of a Mixture in the Two-Phase
                     Region ................................... 297
     11.4.2 Effect of Changing the System Composition ......... 301
11.5 Phase Behavior of Multicomponent Mixtures ................ 302
11.6 Construction of Phase Envelopes .......................... 304
     Problems ................................................. 305
     References ............................................... 307

Chapter 12 Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids ....... 309
12.1 Introduction ............................................. 309
12.2 Preamble to the Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir
     Fluids ................................................... 309
12.3 Brief Description of the Plus Fraction ................... 310
12.4 Classification and Identification of Fluid Type .......... 311
12.5 Black Oils ............................................... 311
12.6 Volatile Oils ............................................ 313
12.7 Gas Condensates .......................................... 315
12.8 Wet Gases ................................................ 318
12.9 Dry Gases ................................................ 319
12.10 Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids in the
      Two-Phase Region ........................................ 320
12.11 Saturated Hydrocarbon Reservoirs ........................ 322
12.12 Production Trends of Five Reservoir Fluids .............. 322
      Problems ................................................ 324
      References .............................................. 325

Chapter 13 Sampling of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids ............. 327
13.1 Introduction ............................................. 327
13.2 Practical Considerations of Fluid Sampling ............... 329
     13.2.1 Well Conditioning ................................. 329
13.3 Methods of Fluid Sampling ................................ 330
     13.3.1 Subsurface Sampling ............................... 331
     13.3.2 Wellhead Sampling ................................. 331
     13.3.3 Surface (Separator) Sampling ...................... 331
13.4 Evaluating the Representativity of Fluid Samples:
     Quality Checks ........................................... 334
13.5 Factors Affecting Sample Representativity ................ 335
     Problems ................................................. 337
     References ............................................... 337

Chapter 14 Compositional Analysis of Petroleum Reservoir
Fluids ........................................................ 339
14.1 Introduction ............................................. 339
14.2 Strategy of Compositional Analysis ....................... 340
     14.2.1 Surface Samples of Separator Gas and Liquid ....... 340
     14.2.2 Blowdown Method ................................... 342
     14.2.3 Direct Determination of Composition ............... 343
14.3 Characteristics of Reservoir Fluid Composition ........... 343
     14.3.1 Weil-Defined Components ........................... 344
     14.3.2 Pseudo Fractions .................................. 345
     14.3.3 Plus Fraction ..................................... 345
14.4 Gas Chromatography ....................................... 346
14.5 True Boiling-Point Distillation .......................... 348
     14.5.1 Properties of TBP Cuts and Residue ................ 350
     14.5.2 Internal Consistency of TBP Data .................. 350
     14.5.3 Properties of TBP Cuts and Generalized Data ....... 353
14.6 Characterization of Pseudo Fractions and Residue ......... 356
14.7 Other Nonconventional Methods of Compositional Analysis .. 357
     Problems ................................................. 359
     References ............................................... 361

Chapter 15 PVT Analysis and Reservoir Fluid Properties ........ 363
15.1 Introduction ............................................. 363
15.2 Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids ................. 364
     15.2.1 Gases and Liquids ................................. 365
     15.2.2 Ideal Gases ....................................... 365
            15.2.2.1 Standard Volume .......................... 366
     15.2.3 Real Gases ........................................ 366
            15.2.3.1 Gas Density .............................. 370
            15.2.3.2 Specific Gravity ......................... 370
     15.2.4 Mixtures of Gases ................................. 371
            15.2.4.1 Apparent Molecular Weight ................ 371
            15.2.4.2 Critical Pressure and Temperature
                     of Gas Mixtures .......................... 371
            15.2.4.3 Determination of Compressibility
                     Factor of Gas Mixtures ................... 375
            15.2.4.4 Determination of Density of Gas
                     Mixtures ................................. 377
     15.2.5 Dry Gases ......................................... 378
            15.2.5.1 Formation Volume Factor .................. 378
            15.2.5.2 Coefficient of Isothermal
                     Compressibility .......................... 379
            15.2.5.3 Viscosity ................................ 381
     15.2.6 Wet Gases ......................................... 382
            15.2.6.1 Recombination Cases ...................... 382
            15.2.6.2 Formation Volume Factor .................. 386
     15.2.7 Gas Condensates ................................... 387
     15.2.8 Black Oils and Volatile Oils ...................... 388
            15.2.8.1 Formation Volume Factor .................. 388
            15.2.8.2 Solution Gas-Oil Ratio or Gas
                     Solubility ............................... 389
            15.2.8.3 Total Formation Volume Factor ............ 390
            15.2.8.4 Coefficient of Isothermal
                     Compressibility .......................... 392
            15.2.8.5 Viscosity ................................ 393
            15.2.8.6 Surface Tension .......................... 395
            15.2.8.7 Volatile Oils ............................ 396
     15.3 Laboratory Tests .................................... 396
          15.3.1 PVT Equipment ................................ 397
          15.3.2 Constant Composition Expansion ............... 399
          15.3.3 Differential Liberation ...................... 401
          15.3.4 Constant Volume Depletion .................... 404
                 15.3.4.1 Liquid Drop Out ..................... 406
                 15.3.4.2 Material Balance for Condensate
                          Composition ......................... 406
                 15.3.4.3 Two-Phase Compressibility Factor .... 410
          15.3.5 Separator Tests .............................. 410
                 15.3.5.1 Optimum Separator Conditions ........ 412
15.4 Adjustment of Black Oil Laboratory Data .................. 413
     15.4.1 Combination Equations ............................. 415
            15.4.1.1 Formation Volume Factor of Oil ........... 416
            15.4.1.2 Solution Gas-Oil Ratio ................... 416
            15.4.1.3 Formation Volume Factor of Gas ........... 418
            15.4.1.4 Total Formation Volume Factor ............ 418
            15.4.1.5 Coefficient of Isothermal
                     Compressibility of Oil ................... 418
     15.4.2 Composite Liberation .............................. 419
15.5 Other Sources of Obtaining the Properties of Petroleum
     Reservoir Fluids ......................................... 419
     15.5.1 Empirical Correlations ............................ 419
            15.5.1.1 Standing's Empirical Correlations ........ 420
     15.5.2 Prediction of Viscosity from Compositional Data ... 423
     15.5.3 Prediction of Surface Tension ..................... 427
     Problems ................................................. 430
     References ............................................... 437

Chapter 16 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria ............................ 439
16.1 Introduction ............................................. 439
16.2 Ideal Mixtures ........................................... 440
     16.2.1 Raoult's Law ...................................... 440
     16.2.2 Dalton's Law ...................................... 441
     16.2.3 Equilibrium Ratio ................................. 441
     16.2.4 Concept of PT Flash ............................... 441
            16.2.4.1 Flash Functions .......................... 443
     16.2.5 Calculation of Bubble-Point Pressure .............. 444
     16.2.6 Calculation of Dew-Point Pressure ................. 445
     16.2.7 Drawbacks of the Ideal Mixture Principle .......... 445
16.3 Empirical Correlations for Calculating Equilibrium
     Ratios for Real Solutions ................................ 446
     16.3.1 Wilson Equation ................................... 447
     16.3.2 Methods Based on the Concept of Convergence
            Pressure .......................................... 447
            16.3.2.1 K-Value Charts ........................... 451
            16.3.2.2 Whitson-Torp Correlation ................. 455
16.4 Equations-of-State (EOS) Models .......................... 457
     16.4.1 Description of EOS Models ......................... 457
            16.4.1.1 van der Waals Equation of State .......... 458
            16.4.1.2 Redlich-Kwong Equation of State .......... 462
            16.4.1.3 Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State .... 463
            16.4.1.4 Peng-Robinson Equation of State .......... 464
     16.4.2 Concept of Fugacity ............................... 464
     16.4.3 Application of Equations of State to Pure
            Components ........................................ 466
     16.4.4 Extension of EOS Models to Mixtures ............... 467
            16.4.4.1 Determination of Equilibrium Ratios
                     from EOS Models .......................... 470
     16.4.5 VLE Calculations Using EOS Models ................. 472
            16.4.5.1 Calculation of Bubble-Point Pressure ..... 472
            16.4.5.2 Calculation of Dew-Point Pressure ........ 475
            16.4.5.3 PT Flash Calculations .................... 475
            16.4.5.4 Separator Calculations ................... 478
            16.4.5.5 A Note about the Application of EOS
                     Models to Real Reservoir Fluids .......... 483
16.5 Use of EOS Models in PVT Packages ........................ 484
     Problems ................................................. 485
     References ............................................... 486

Chapter 17 Properties of Formation Waters ..................... 489
17.1 Introduction ............................................. 489
17.2 Compositional Characteristics of Formation Waters ........ 490
17.3 Bubble-Point Pressure of Formation Water ................. 492
17.4 Formation Volume Factor of Formation Water ............... 492
17.5 Density of Formation Water ............................... 493
17.6 Viscosity of Formation Water ............................. 494
17.7 Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Formation Water ............ 495
17.8 Solubility of Formation Water in Hydrocarbons ............ 497
     17.8.1 Water Content of Gaseous Hydrocarbons ............. 497
     17.8.2 Water Content of Liquid Hydrocarbons .............. 499
17.9 Compressibility of Formation Water ....................... 499
     Problems ................................................. 500
     References ............................................... 501

Author Index .................................................. 503
Subject Index ................................................. 509


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Посещение N 1181 c 29.07.2014