Thermodynamics, solubility and environmental issues (Amsterdam; Oxford, 2007). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаThermodynamics, solubility and environmental issues / ed. by T.M.Letcher. - Amsterdam; Oxford: Elsevier, 2007. - xxi, 470 p.: ill. - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.463-470. - ISBN 978-0-444-52707-3
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ......................................................... v
Foreword ...................................................... vii
List of Contributors ........................................... ix

PART I. BASIC THEORY AND MODELLING

Chapter 1  AN INTRODUCTION TO MODELLING OF POLLUTANTS IN
THE ENVIRONMENT ................................................. 3
T.M. Letcher
1  Introduction ................................................. 3
2  Partition Coefficients ....................................... 3
3  Model Environments ........................................... 7
4  Equilibrium Partition ........................................ 7
5  Environmental Distribution ................................... 9
6  Environmental Distribution Using a Flow Model ............... 11
7  Accumulation of Chemicals in the Food Chain ................. 15

Chapter 2  MODELING THE SOLUBILITY IN WATER OF
ENVIRONMENTALLY IMPORTANT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS .................... 17
E. Estrada, E.J. Delgado, and Y. Simón-Manso
1  Introduction ................................................ 17
2  Quantum Chemistry Methods ................................... 19
3  Experiment-Based QSPR Modeling .............................. 20
4  Structure-Based QSPR Modeling ............................... 21
5  The Quantum-Connectivity Indices ............................ 23
6  Modeling Solubility with Quantum-Connectivity ............... 25
7  Concluding Remarks .......................................... 28

Chapter 3  Modeling of Contaminant Leaching .................... 33
M. Diaz and D. Apul
1  Overview of Significance .................................... 33
2  Geochemical Modeling ........................................ 34
3  Summary ..................................................... 46

PART II. INDUSTRY AND MINING

Chapter 4  SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS AND REDUCTIONS IN
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ........................................ 51
K. Yamanaka and H. Ohtaki
1  Introduction ................................................ 51
2  Supercritical Fluids ........................................ 51
3  References for Thermodynamic Properties of Supercritical
   Fluids ...................................................... 55
4  Solubility of Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes in
   Supercritical Fluids ........................................ 60
5  Structure of Supercritical Water ............................ 65
6  Application of Supercritical Fluids for Reducing
   Pollutants .................................................. 76
7  Concluding Remarks .......................................... 81

Chapter 5  Phase Equilibrium Studies on Ionic Liquid Systems
for Industrial Separation Processes of Complex Organic
Mixtures ....................................................... 85
P. Ready and T.M. Letcher
1  Introduction ................................................ 85
2  Solubility Studies on Ionic Liquid-Organic Mixtures and
   Application to Liquid-Liquid Extraction ..................... 88
3  The Determination of Activity Coefficients at Infinite
   Dilution for the Selection of Entrainers in Extractive
   Distillation ............................................... 100
4  Assessment of the Potential of Ionic Liquids as Solvents
   in Separation Processes .................................... 105
5  Conclusion ................................................. 107
Appendix I .................................................... 107

Chapter 6  ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOLUBILITY ISSUES RELATED TO
NOVEL CORROSION CONTROL ....................................... 113
W.J. van Ooij and P. Puomi
1. Introduction ............................................... 113
2  Corrosion of Industrially Important Metals ................. 115
3  The Layers Protecting the Base Metals ...................... 117
4  Superprimers on Metals ..................................... 125
5  Summary/Conclusions ........................................ 133

Chapter 7  THE BEHAVIOR OF IRON AND ALUMINUM IN ACID MINE
DRAINAGE: SPECIATION, MINERALOGY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL
SIGNIFICANCE .................................................. 137
J.S. España
1  Introduction ............................................... 137
2  Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Iron and Aluminum in AMD .... 138
3  Environmental Significance ................................. 144
4  Conclusions ................................................ 148

PART III. RADIOACTIVE WASTES

Chapter 8  An Evaluation of Solubility Limits on Maximum
Uranium Concentrations in Groundwater ......................... 153
T. Iwatsuki and R.C. Arthur
1  Introduction ............................................... 153
2  Geologic Setting of the Tono Uranium Deposit ............... 154
3  Geochemical Constraints on Uranium Solubility .............. 156
4  Evaluation of Uranium Solubility ........................... 160
5  Conclusions ................................................ 166

Chapter 9  LEACHING FROM CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS USED IN
RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES .............................. 169
K. Yokozeki
1  Introduction ............................................... 169
2  Radioactive Waste Disposal Site and Concrete ............... 169
3  Leaching from Cementitious Materials ....................... 170
4  Method for Predicting Durability of Concrete ............... 172
5  Measures Against Leaching Degradation ...................... 179
6  Conclusions ................................................ 184

PART IV. AIR, WATER, SOIL AND REMEDIATION

Chapter 10 SOLUBILITY OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN NATURAL SYSTEMS .... 189
J. Salminen, P. Kobylin and A. Ojala
1. Carbon Dioxide: A Natural Reagent .......................... 189
2  Aqueous Speciation of CO2 .................................. 191
3  Multiphase Thermodynamic System ............................ 192
4  Modelling Natural Systems .................................. 196
5  Concluding Remarks ......................................... 202

Chapter 11 ESTIMATION OF THE VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC
CHEMICALS FROM SOIL ........................................... 205
E. Voutsas
1  Introduction ............................................... 205
2  Physicochemical Properties of Chemicals .................... 207
3  Factors Influencing Volatilization ......................... 210
4  Estimation of Volatilization of Chemicals from Soil ........ 214
5  Thermodynamics of Persistent Organic Chemicals: The
   Equilibrium Partitioning Approach .......................... 220

Chapter 12 Solubility and the Phytoextraction of Arsenic
from Soils by Two Different Fern Species ...................... 229
V. Campos
1  Introduction ............................................... 229
2  Materials and Methods ...................................... 232
3  Results and Discussion ..................................... 236
4  Conclusions ................................................ 239

Chapter 13 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF GASOLINE ADDITIVES -
AQUEOUS SOLUBILITY AND SPILLS ................................. 245
J. Bergendahl
1  Introduction ............................................... 245
2  Common Oxygenates and Octane Boosters ...................... 246
3  Releases to the Environment ................................ 251
4  Conclusions ................................................ 257

Chapter 14 Ecotoxicity of Ionic Liquids in an Aquatic
Environment ................................................... 259
D. Pieraccini, C. Chiappe, L. Intorre and C. Pretti
1  Introduction ............................................... 259
2  Lipophilicity .............................................. 260
3  Biodegradability ........................................... 260
4  Aquatic Toxicity ........................................... 262
5  Conclusions ................................................ 276

Chapter 15 Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants: Solubility and
Environmental Issues .......................................... 279
C.N. Mulligan
1  Introduction ............................................... 279
2  Background to Rhamnolipids ................................. 280
3  Enhanced Biodegradation of Recalcitrant Compounds .......... 281
4  Ex Situ Washing ............................................ 285
5  In Situ Rushing Applications ............................... 291
6  Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration of Contaminated Water .... 294
7  Conclusions ................................................ 295

Chapter 16 Sorption, Lipophilicity and Partitioning
Phenomena of Ionic Liquids in Environmental Systems ........... 299
P. Stepnowski
1  Introduction ............................................... 299
2  Ionic Liquids .............................................. 300
3  Sorption of Ionic Liquids in the Environment ............... 301
4  Lipophilicity and the Partitioning of Ionic Liquids ........ 307
5  Conclusions ................................................ 311

Chapter 17 The Solubility of Hydroxyaluminosilicates and the
Biological Availability of Aluminium .......................... 315
C. Exley
1  What are Hydroxyaluminosilicates? .......................... 315
2  A Summary of the Evidence .................................. 316
3  What Next for Hydroxyaluminosilicates? ..................... 320
4  Hydroxyaluminosilicates and the Biological Availability
   of Aluminium ............................................... 321

Chapter 18 APATITE GROUP MINERALS: SOLUBILITY AND
ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION ..................................... 327
M.C.E. Magalhães and P.A. Williams
1  Introduction ............................................... 327
2  Apatite Group Minerals ..................................... 327
3  Lead Phosphate Minerals .................................... 329
4  Arsenate Minerals .......................................... 332
5  Conclusions ................................................ 336

PART V. POLYMER RELATED ISSUES
Chapter 19 SOLUBILITY OF GASES AND VAPORS IN POLYLACTIDE
POLYMERS ...................................................... 343
R.A. Auras
1  Introduction ............................................... 343
2  Polymer/Chemical Interactions .............................. 344
3  Theoretical Considerations ................................. 344
4  Factors Affecting Mass Transfer in Polymers ................ 349
5  Polylactides ............................................... 352
6  Polylactide Barrier Properties ............................. 354
7  Regular Solution Theory: Solubility Parameter Predictions .. 362

Chapter 20 BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL OBTAINED FROM RENEWABLE
RESOURCE: PLASTICIZED SODIUM CASEINATE FILMS .................. 369
J.-L. Audic, F. Fourcade and B. Chaufer
1  Introduction ............................................... 369
2  Experimental Section ....................................... 371
3  Results and Discussion ..................................... 374
4  Conclusion ................................................. 380

Chapter 21 SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE AS A GREEN SOLVENT
FOR POLYMER SYNTHESIS ......................................... 383
C.D. Wood, B. Tan, H. Zhang and A.I. Cooper
1  Introduction ............................................... 383
2  Porous Materials and Supercritical Fluids .................. 384
3  C02 as a Pressure-Adjustable Template/Porogen .............. 384
4  Templating of Supercritical Fluid Emulsions ................ 386
5  Polymer Solubility in CO2 .................................. 388
6  High-Throughput Solubility Measurements in CO2 ............. 390
7  Inexpensive and Biodegradable CO2-Philes ................... 390
8  Conclusions ................................................ 392

Chapter 22 SOLUBILITY OF PLASTICIZERS, POLYMERS AND
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ....................................... 397
E. Białecka-Florjańczyk and Z. Florjańczyk
1  Introduction ............................................... 397
2  Solubility Parameters as a Guide for Plasticizer
   Selection .................................................. 400
3  Environmental and Health Issues ............................ 403
4  Concluding Remarks ......................................... 407

PART VI. PESTICIDES AND POLLUTION EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

Chapter 23 SOLUBILITY ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ....... 411
A. Arce and A. Soto
1  Solubility Issues in Environmental Pollution ............... 411
2  Absorption of SO2 by Seawater .............................. 412
3  Replacement of MTBE by Other Tertiary Ethers ............... 416
4  Desulphurization of Fuel Oils with Ionic Liquids ........... 420

Chapter 24 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND HUMAN EXPOSURE TO
PESTICIDES .................................................... 429
A. Garrido Frenich, F.J. Egea González, A. Marín Juan and
J.L. Martínez Vidal
1  Introduction ............................................... 429
2  Priority Properties Affecting the Hazards of Pesticides .... 431
3  Hazard Identification and Mechanisms of Toxicity ........... 433
4  Human Exposure Assessment .................................. 435
5  Conclusions ................................................ 440

Chapter 25 Solubility and Body Fluids ......................... 445
E. Königsberger and L.-C. Königsberger
1  Introduction ............................................... 445
2  Body Fluids ................................................ 446
3  Solubility Phenomena in Body Fluids ........................ 448
4  Conclusion ................................................. 457

Index ......................................................... 463


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