Long-chain omega-3 specialty oils (Cambridge, 2007 (2012)). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаLong-chain omega-3 specialty oils / ed. by H.Breivik. - Cambridge: Oily press/Woodhead publ., 2007 (2012). - xiv, 299 p.: ill. - (Oily press lipid library; vol.21). - Bibliogr. at the end of the chapters. - Ind.: p.291-299. - ISBN 978-0-9552512-1-4
 

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Оглавление / Contents
 
Preface ......................................................... v
List of Contributors ......................................... xiii

1  Omega-3 fatty acids - Introduction ........................... 1
   Frank D. Gunstone
A  What are omega-3 fatty acids? ................................ 1
B  How are omega-3 fatty acids formed in plants and animals? .... 3
C  Dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids ....................... 4
   1  ALA
   2  Stearidonic acid
   3  EPA and DHA from fish oils
   4  DHA from microbial oils
   5  LC-PUFA from animal fats
   6  LC-PUFA from plant lipids
   7  LC-PUFA in structured lipids
D  Omega-3 fatty acids - physiological and medical effects ..... 11
E  Omega-3 fatty acids - does chain length matter? ............. 12
F  Omega-3 fatty acids - dietary intakes and recommendations ... 14
G  Stability ................................................... 18
   References .................................................. 19

2  Fish oil sources ............................................ 23
   Peter D. Nichols
A  Introduction ................................................ 23
   1  Definition of fish oil and omega-3 oils
   2  History
   3  Global production
   4  Global trade
   5  Usage by region
B  Fish oils - fatty acid profiles ............................. 29
C  Fish oil resources and other issues ......................... 33
   1  Aquaculture
   2  Aquaculture versus nutraceutical use
D  Other oils .................................................. 37
   1  Seal and penguin oils
   2  Whale oil
   3  Krill oil
E  The future .................................................. 39
   Acknowledgements
   References

3  Microbial oils: production, processing and markets for
   specialty long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids .... 43
   James P. Wynn and Colin Ratledge
A  Introduction ................................................ 43
B  Biochemistry of fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid
   accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms ................... 46
C  Advantages/disadvantages of SCOs versus 'traditional' 
   omega-3 oils ................................................ 54
D  Choice of production organism ............................... 56
E  Current production .......................................... 58
F  Safety ...................................................... 62
G  Current applications for omega-3 LC-PUFA SCO ................ 66
H  Future applications of microbial omega-3 LC-PUFA ............ 67
   1  DHA-richSCOs
   2  Prospects for an EPA-rich SCO?
I  Future of omega-3 LC-PUFA SCOs .............................. 71
   References .................................................. 72

4  Processing of marine oils ................................... 77
   Anthony P. Bimbo
A  Introduction ................................................ 77
B  World fish statistics ....................................... 77
C  Production of crude fish oil ................................ 80
   1  Raw materials
   2  Cooking process
   3  Pressing process
   4  Drying process
   5  Antioxidant addition
   6  Oil-water separation
   7  Evaporation process
D  Fish oil .................................................... 83
   1  Introduction
   2  Fish oil statistics
   3  Fish oil markets
   4  Crude fish oil quality parameters
   5  Fish oil pricing
E  Nutraceutical fish oils ..................................... 90
   1  Introduction
   2  Market segments
   3  Raw materials
   4  Processing beyond crude oil
F  Liver oils .................................................. 99
   1  Raw materials
   2  Processing
G  Tuna and bonito oil ........................................ 102
   1  Raw materials
   2  Processing
H  Krill oil .................................................. 102
   1  Raw materials
   2  Processing
   3  Quality
   References ................................................. 107

5  Concentrates ............................................... 111
   Harald Breivik
A  Introduction ............................................... 111
B  Fractionation techniques ................................... 114
   1  Counter-current extraction of fatty acid salts
   2  Fractionation by molecular distillation/short-path
      distillation
   3  Fractionation by urea complexation
   4  Extraction with aqueous silver nitrate
   5  Supercritical fluid fractionation
   6  Production-scale chromatography
   7  Enzymatic reactions
   8  Iodolactones
   9  Re-esterification to acylglycerols
C  By-products and contaminants ............................... 130
   1  Compounds naturally occurring in fish oils
   2  By-products formed during work-up
   3  Contamination during transport and storage; solvent
      residues and contamination from reagents
D  Stability of concentrates .................................. 135
E  Production conforming to GMP regulations ................... 136
F  Labelling .................................................. 137
   References ................................................. 137

6  Enzymatic processing of omega-3 specialty oils ............. 141
   Xuebing Xu, Aran H-Kittikun and Hong Zhang
A  Introduction ............................................... 141
B  Enzyme-assisted extraction offish oils ..................... 143
   1  Traditional production of fish oil
   2  Enzyme-assisted production of fish oil
C  Enzymatic concentration of omega-3 fatty acids ............. 146
   1  Concentration of omega-3 PUFA by hydrolysis with
      lipases
   2  Enrichment of omega-3 PUFA by lipase-catalysed 
      alcoholysis
D  Enzymatic production of omega-3 ethyl esters	153
E  Enzymatic production of structured lipids containing 
   omega-3 fatty acids ........................................ 155
F  Enzymatic production of omega-3 monoacylglycerols .......... 157
G  Enzymatic synthesis of omega-3 triacylglycerols ............ 158
H  Concluding remarks ......................................... 159
   Acknowledgements ........................................... 160
   References ................................................. 160

7  Applications in food products .............................. 165
   Reto Muggli
A  Introduction ............................................... 165
B  Intake recommendations and meeting the requirements of
   omega-3 long-chain PUFA intakes ............................ 166
C  Foods fortified with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids - the
   fishy taste and smell problem .............................. 170
D  The origin of fishy taste and smell molecules .............. 171
E  Solving the fishy taste and smell problem - precautions
   and general approaches ..................................... 173
   1  Choosing the raw material
   2  Refining of the EPA/DHA oils
   3  Stabilization by antioxidants and metal inactivators
   4  Stabilization by protection from oxygen, heat and light
F  Food manufacturing - technical challenges and solutions .... 178
   1  General handling rules
   2  Multiphase systems
   3  Precautions and possible pitfalls
   4  Model recipes for selected food items
G  Do EPA/DHA-fortified foods work? ........................... 185
H  The challenge of developing and marketing mainstream
   foods fortified with EPA/DHA ............................... 186
   References ................................................. 190

8  Optimization of oxidative stability of omega-3 enriched
   foods ...................................................... 197
   Charlotte Jacobsen and Nina Skall Nielsen
A  Introduction ............................................... 197
B  Lipid oxidation and antioxidant processes .................. 197
   1  Oxidation processes
   2  Volatile oxidation products and sensory properties
   3  Antioxidant processes
C  Prevention of lipid oxidation in omega-3 enriched foods .... 200
   1  Lipid oxidation in emulsions
   2  The influence of the omega-3 oil quality
   3  The influence of emulsifiers and pH
   4  The effect of the emulsification conditions
   5  Antioxidant efficacy in omega-3 enriched food emulsions
   6  Optimizing oxidative stability by mixing the omega-3
      oil with vegetable oils
   7  Optimizing oxidative stability by microencapsulation
D  Conclusions and recommendations ............................ 213
   References ................................................. 214

9  Analysis of oils and concentrates .......................... 219
   Jonathan M. Curtis
A  Introduction ............................................... 219
B  Principles used in the analysis of the fatty acid content
   of omega-3 oils as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
   using gas chromatography (GC) .............................. 220
   1  Methods for forming FAME from oils
   2  Official methods for FAME analysis
   3  Quantification in FAME analysis
   4  Other approaches to the quantification of fatty acids
C  Fish oil quantification, authenticity and triacylglycerol
   positional analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance 
   (NMR) spectroscopy ......................................... 229
   1  Quantification of DHA by high-resolution 'H NMR
   2  Positional distribution by high-resolution "C NMR
D  Measurement of oxidation products in refined fish oils ..... 231
   1  Peroxide value
   2  Conjugated diene test
   3  Anisidine value (AV)
   4  Measurement of lipid oligomers by size exclusion 
      chromatography
   5  Traits isomers
   6  Free fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter
E  Measurement of contaminants and impurities in refined 
   fish oils .................................................. 237
   References ................................................. 239

10 The regulation of fish oils and omega-3 fatty acids in
   the European Union ......................................... 243
   Peter Berry Ottaway
A  Introduction ............................................... 243
B  The regulation of fish oils in foods and supplements ....... 244
C  European Union (EU) ........................................ 244
D  General food law ........................................... 245
E  Chemical contaminants ...................................... 246
   1  Dioxins, furans and PCBs
   2  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
   3  Mercury
F  Novel ingredients .......................................... 247
   1  Scope
   2  Safety assessments
   3  Applicability to oils
   4  Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
G  Food additives ............................................. 251
H  Labelling and claims ....................................... 252
   1  Fatty acid claims
   2  Health claims
   3  Types of claims
   4  Article 13 claims
   5  Substantiation of claims
I  Conclusions ................................................ 260
   References ................................................. 260

11 Markets for fish oils and fish oil concentrates ............ 263
   Baldur Hjaltason And Gudmundur G. Haraldsson
A  Introduction ............................................... 263
B  Food ingredients and functional foods ...................... 266
   1  Europe
   2  North America
   3  Japan
   4  Rest of the world
C  Dietary supplements ........................................ 280
   1  USA
   2  Europe
   3  Rest of the world
D  Pharmaceuticals ............................................ 285
E  Future trends .............................................. 286
   References ................................................. 287

Index ......................................................... 291


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