Tomalia D.A. Dendrimers, dendrons, and dendritic polymers: discovery, applications and the future (Cambridge, 2012). - ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ / CONTENTS
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ОбложкаTomalia D.A. Dendrimers, dendrons, and dendritic polymers: discovery, applications and the future / D.A.Tomalia, J.B.Christensen, U.Boas. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. - vii, 412 p.: ill. - Incl. bibl. ref. - Ind.: p.407-412. - ISBN 978-0-521-51580-1
 

Оглавление / Contents
 
   Foreword .................................................... ix

1  Introduction ................................................. 1
   1.1  Background/historical ................................... 1
   1.2  Birth of a new macromolecular chemistry concept ......... 9
   1.3  Dendritic polymer subclasses ........................... 11
   1.4  International academic/commercial interest and
        activity ............................................... 16
   References .................................................. 20

2  The dendritic state ......................................... 25
   2.1  Introduction ........................................... 25
   2.2  Dendrons, dendrimers, and megamers ..................... 29
   2.3  Advances in dendron and dendrimer internal complexity .. 64
   2.4  Supramacromolecular assembly of dendrons ............... 88
   2.5  Supramacromolecular self-assembly of dendrimers ........ 92
   2.6  Dendritic supramolecular networks ...................... 96
   2.7  Hierarchical Aufbau: picoscale to micron sized
        dendritic lattices ..................................... 98
   References .................................................. 99

3  Synthetic methodologies .................................... 113
   3.1  Synthesis of dendritic polymers - a fourth major new
        architectural class ................................... 113
   3.2  Dendrons and dendrimers ............................... 118
   3.3  Statistical, divergent growth ......................... 136
   3.4  Controlled, convergent growth ......................... 142
   3.5  Supramolecular self-assembly .......................... 149
   References ................................................. 156

4  Characterization methodologies ............................. 162
   4.1  The challenges of defining structures in a new,
        unprecedented polymer architecture .................... 162
   4.2  Determination of composition and chemical
        functionality ......................................... 164
   4.3  Characterization of dendritic architectural
        structures ............................................ 168
   4.4  Homogeneity and molecular weight ...................... 169
   4.5  Determination of size/dimensions ...................... 174
   4.6  Determination of thermal properties ................... 179
   4.7  Determination of encapsulation properties ............. 179
   References ................................................. 183

5  Nanomedical and advanced materials ......................... 187
   5.1  Diagnostics ........................................... 187
   5.2  Advanced imaging ...................................... 195
   5.3  Dendrimers as vectors for genetic material delivery ... 203
   5.4  Dendrimer-based nanopharmaceuticals ................... 215
   5.5  Advanced materials .................................... 229
   5.6  Summary ............................................... 245
   References ................................................. 247

6  Toxicology of dendrimers and dendrons ...................... 255
   6.1  Introduction .......................................... 255
   6.2  Methods for measurement of toxicity in vitro and in
        vivo .................................................. 257
   6.3  Effects of charge and functionality ................... 259
   6.4  Toxicity - effects of size, shape, and polarity ....... 263
   6.5  Modulation of toxicity ................................ 266
   6.6  Bio-permeability and biodistribution .................. 268
   6.7  Immunogenicity of dendrimers .......................... 271
   6.8  Summary ............................................... 272
   References ................................................. 273

7  The dendritic effect ....................................... 276
   7.1  Introduction/definitions .............................. 276
   7.2  Architecture driven properties: dendritic versus
        linear macromolecular architecture .................... 277
   7.3  Architecture driven intrinsic dendrimer properties .... 279
   7.4  Interdependence of critical nanoscale design
        parameters (CNDPs) in a typical dendrimer family ...... 284
   7.5  Relationship of CNDPs to dendritic effects ............ 285
   7.6  Conservation of critical hierarchical design
        parameters (CHDPs) .................................... 286
   References ................................................. 288

8  A quantized building block concept leading to a new
   nano-periodic system ....................................... 293
   8.1  introduction .......................................... 293
   8.2  First principles and central dogma for traditional
        chemistry ............................................. 293
   8.3  Heuristic atom mimicry of dendrimers .................. 298
   8.4  Chemical bonding, valency and stoichiometric binding
        ratios to form (dendrimer)n-type nano-compounds/
        assemblies ............................................ 306
   8.5  Proposed nano-periodic system for unifying and
        defining nanoscience .................................. 307
   8.6  Structural control in dendrimers: CNDPs ............... 315
   8.7  Use of first principles to create a new nano-
        periodic system ....................................... 330
   8.8  Elemental periodic property patterns leading
        to Mendeleev's periodic table ......................... 346
   8.9  Nano-periodic physico-chemical property patterns ...... 347
   8.10 Predictive nano-periodic property patterns of
        importance to nano-medicine: discrete in vivo
        excretion and permeability ............................ 352
   8.11 First steps toward a "central dogma" for synthetic
        nano-chemistry: dendrimer-based nano-chemistry ........ 354
   8.12 First nano-periodic tables for predicting
        amphiphilic dendron self-assembly to supramolecular
        dendrimers based on the CNDPs: (a) size, (b) shape,
        (c) surface chemistry, and (d) flexibility ............ 360
   8.13 Overview of Aufbau intermediates involved in the
        dimensional enhancement of soft nano-element; [S-1]
        category complexity ................................... 364
   8.14 Conclusions ........................................... 366
   References ................................................. 369

9  The past, present, and future for dendrons and dendrimers .. 378
   9.1  Historical overview of dendron/dendrimer structural
        and process development ............................... 378
   9.2  Dendrimer applications and products ................... 386
   9.3  Summary ............................................... 389
   9.4  Conclusion ............................................ 392
   References ................................................. 393

   Index ...................................................... 407


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